The Nazi Dictatorship 1933-39

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  • Created by: Buffy
  • Created on: 03-05-14 12:43
The Reichstag Fire (February 1933)
Blamed on a young Dutch communist, Marinus van der Lubbe. Hitler used the Reichstag fire to make Hindenburg declare a state of emergency, so Hitler, as chancellor could pass laws by decree.
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The Decree for the Protection of the People and the State
Passed by Hitler before the 1933 elections. It suspended civil rights, which meant he could imprison his election rivals. It also banned communist newspapers.
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The March 1933 election
The campaign was violent. 70 people died in clashes between the SA and Nazi opponents. The Nazi won 288 seats, the communists only 81.
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Hitler banned the communists
From taking their 81 seats by using his emergency powers. This meant Hitler, with the aid of the Nationalists, had two thirds of the votes in the Reichstag he need to change the constitution.
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The Enabling Act (March 1933)
was passed by 444 votes to 94, the SA and SS filled the Kroll Opera House where the voting was held. The Act said Hitler could make laws without the consent of the Reichstag. He got this extra power for four years.
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Hitler banned trade unions
in 1933 and made strikes illegal. He did this because strikes could undermine his power. It removed a possible source of opposition.
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Hitler banned all political parties
except the Nazi Party in 1933. He did this to remove organised opposition to his government. It made the Nazis stronger.
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Hitler banned the Lander (local parliaments) in 1934
He did this because the Nazis did not control them. It removed another possible source of opposition to the Nazis.
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Ernst Rohm
He was the leader of the SA. He disagrees withs some of Hitler's policies. By 1934, the SA numbered 3 million. This made Rohm a threat to Hitler.
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The Night of the Long Knives
He was the leader of the SA. He disagrees with some of Hitler's policies. By 1934, the SA numbered 3 million. This made Rohm a threat to Hitler.
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President Hindenburg
He died in August 1934; Hitler declared himself Fuhrer- with the powers of both chancellor and president. In a plebiscite to confirm this, 90% of voters agreed, this change combined with earlier ones, made Hitler a dictator.
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Hitler set up the SS
In 1925 as his 'protection squad'. From 1929. Himmler ran it and expanded it to 50,000 men. The SS controlled all the security forces in the Nazi police state. The Death's Head Units of the SS ran concentration camps.
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The Gestapo (Hitler's secret police)
Was part of the Nazi police state; it was led by Heydrich. It had no uniform, so it could easily spy on everyone. By 1939, the Gestapo had arrested 150,000 people for political opposition.
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German Law Courts
Were controlled by Hitler as part of his police state. He could ask any judges who displeased him or change sentences they set. Hitler set up the People's Court, with handpicked judges, to hear 'crimes against the state'.
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Concentration camps
Were another part of the Nazi police state. The first one, Dachau, opened in 1933. The camps were set up to punish political opponents; then they took those thee Nazi called 'undesirables' such as Jews, homosexuals and gypsies.
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The Concordat (1933)
It was an agreement between Hitler and the Pope. It said Hitler would allow Catholics to worship and the Catholic Church would not interfere in politics. Hitler hoped it would reduce opposition to Nazi rule.
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The Concordat failed
Hitler wanted more control of the Catholic Church. He made its schools teach his curriculum; he banned Catholic youth groups; he arrested priests. In 1937, the Pope criticised the Nazis in a statement called 'With Burning Anxiety'
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Some Protestants
Accepted the Nazis and even put Nazi flags in church. But the Pastors' Emergency League (PEL) campaigned against the Nazis. The PEL leader, Pastor Martin Niemoller, was arrested in 1937 and sent to a concentration camp.
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Joseph Goebbels
He ran the Ministry of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda. It controlled newspapers, magazines, films, plays and radio broadcasts. It censored information it didn't like and put in propaganda to give out Nazi messages.
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Propaganda
was used to persuade people to support the Nazis and their ideas. Goebbels made radio broadcasts, films and plays support Nazi ideas, then made radios, and film and theatre tickets, cheap. He also used massive rallies to boost the Nazi party.
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Books were vetted
Banned books were regularly collected up and publicly burned. In just one book-burning in Munich, 20,000 books were destroyed. Authors of these books included Freud and Einstein
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Academic ideas were controlled
Between 1933 and 1938, 3,000 university teachers were sacked. The Nazis controlled what research could be cone, and results were expected to confirm Nazi views.
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Music, art and sport were also controlled
'German' music, like Beethoven's, was encouraged; 'foreign' music, like jazz was banned. The Nazis approved of sport. They used the Olympics as a chance to show off Nazi success.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Passed by Hitler before the 1933 elections. It suspended civil rights, which meant he could imprison his election rivals. It also banned communist newspapers.

Back

The Decree for the Protection of the People and the State

Card 3

Front

The campaign was violent. 70 people died in clashes between the SA and Nazi opponents. The Nazi won 288 seats, the communists only 81.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

From taking their 81 seats by using his emergency powers. This meant Hitler, with the aid of the Nationalists, had two thirds of the votes in the Reichstag he need to change the constitution.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

was passed by 444 votes to 94, the SA and SS filled the Kroll Opera House where the voting was held. The Act said Hitler could make laws without the consent of the Reichstag. He got this extra power for four years.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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