Nazi Control and Dictatorship 1933-39

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  • Nazi Control and Dictatorship 1933-39
    • The Creation of a Dictatorship 1933-34
      • The Reichstag Fire gave Hitler the opportunity to begin creating a dictatorship in Germany
      • After the fire, there were open attacks on communists and the Nazis gained more seats in the Reichstag
      • The Enabling Act changed Germany's constitution. It gave much more power to Hitler. As Chancellor, he and his Cabinet could pass laws without the support of the Reichstag. The Night of the Long Knives, which saw many senior offices in the SA killed, enabled Hitler to strengthen his control of the Nazi party
      • After the death of Hindenburg, Hitler moved to take power. On 19 August, the Weimer Republic formally ended
    • The Police State
      • Nazi Germany was a police state, controlled by the **, SD and Gestapo
      • From 1933, concentration camps were also used to deal with 'undesirables', such as political opponents of Nazism
      • The legal system was 'Nazified' - it was made to work in the interests of the Nazi Party. Law courts and judges were placed under the direct control of the Nazis
      • Religion was also closely controlled, although there was some resistance to this, from both Catholics and Protestants
    • Controlling and Influencing Attitudes
      • In Nazi Germany, censorship and propaganda were used to control and influence attitudes
      • Joseph Goebbels, head of the Ministry of People's Enlightenment and Propaganda, was the co-ordinator of Nazi censorship and propaganda
      • Nazi control and influence of attitudes were exerted using the media, rallies and sport, including the Olympic Games
      • The Nazis also exerted control over the Arts, including art, architecture, literature and film
    • Opposition, Resistance and Conformity
      • Most Germans supported Hitler and the Nazis, or at least conformed to the Nazis expectations
      • Resistance and opposition were limited because of Nazi propaganda and the Nazi police state, which prevented criticism of the Nazis, and because of Nazi successes in areas such as foreign policy and employment
      • Some Church leaders were in opposition but they were in a minority and punished
      • Very few were brave enough to oppose Hitler and the Nazis openly

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