The Circulatory System

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  • Created by: Hope
  • Created on: 14-04-14 12:36
What is the heart?
The muscular pump that keeps blood moving around the body
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What does blood do?
It carries substances around the body
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What do the arteries do?
Carry blood away from the heart
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What do the veins do?
Return blood to the heart
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What are the capillaries
Tiny blood vessels that are close to the bodys cells where exchanges can happen
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How does the heart move blood around the body?
The walls of the heart are made of muscle tissue which can contract to put blood under pressure, forcing it to move
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Complete this sentence: The heart has double circulation this means...
There are two seperate sides to the heart and the blood doesnt mix between the two
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What does the LEFT side of the heart do?
It recieves de-oxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs
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What does the RIGHT side of the heart do?
Recieves freshly oxygenated blood and pumps it to the rest of the body
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What is different about the right ventricle and the left ventricle in the heart?
The left ventricle has thicker walls than the right because it has to pump the blood further
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Each pump in the heart has 2 chambers what are they called?
The left and right atrium (at the top) and the left and right ventricle (at the bottom)
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In the heart, what does the atrium do?
Recieves blood from the vein
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In the heart, How does the blood leave the right pump?
Pulmonary artery
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In the heart, How does the blood leave the left pummp?
Aorta
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In the heart, How does the blood get into the right atrium?
Vena Cava
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In the heart, How does the blood get into the left atrium?
The pulmonary vein
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Explain the passage of DE-oxygenated blood through the heart
It enters through the vena cava, Blood flows into the right atrium, blood is pumped into the right ventricle and the blood is pumped out of the heart along the pulmonary artery to the lungs
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Explain the passage of OXYGENATED blood through the heart
It enters the heart through the pumonary vein, flows into the left atrium, it is pumped into the left ventricle and pumped out of the heart along the aorta to the rest of the body
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What do coronary blood vessels do?
Carry oxygen and glucose to the heart tissue to keep it working, and carry away waste such as carbon dioxide
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What happens if coronary blood vessels develope fatty desposits?
They become less efficent and can get blocked which could lead to a heart attack
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What are the advantages of an artifical heart?
You dont need to take any drugs and you dont have to wait for a real heart
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What are the disadvantages of an artifical heart?
It can cause clotting problems and there is a short lifespan for the device
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What is the advantage of a real donated heart?
It is longer lasting
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What is the disadvantage of a real donated heart?
You have to take drugs to stop body from rejecting heart
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What is the sequence of arteries veins and cappilaries?
Blood flows from the heart to the other organs through artieries, in the organ the arteries branch into cappilaries and then branch togehter again to form veins which go back to the heart
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Name some different elements of arteries
Blood is under high pressure, Thick walls, Thick layer of elastic fibres and think layer of muscle in wall
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Name some of the different elements in veins
Blood is under less pressure than in arteries, Thin wall, One way valves
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Complete this sentence: Arteries are adapted to allow...
The exchange of substances between the blood and the tissues of the body
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What are the four parts of the blood?
Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma
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What are the two primary roles of the blood?
To transport substances around our body and defend against infection by pathogens
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What are red blood cells?
Tiny, nucleus-free cells which carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues
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Why is oxygen transport through red blood cells efficent?
There are huge numbers of red blood cells, The cells are tiny so can move around easily, Cells have flattened disk shape which increases surface area and contain haemoglobin
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Explain 'Haemoglobin'
In the lungs haemoglobin combines with oxygen to become oxyhaemoglobin. And then in low oxygenated environments (body cells) oxyhaemagblobin releases oxygen to become haemagblobin
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What colour is blood if it is oxygenated?
Bright Red
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What colour is blood if it is de-oxygenated?
Dark Red
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What is the equation for haemoglobin in oxygen-rich environments?
Oxygen+ Haemoglobin = Oxyhaemaglobin
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What is blood plasma?
A straw coloured liquid in the blood that transports dissolved substances around the body
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What does blood plasma transport?
Carbon dioxide from the organs to lungs, Soluable products of digestion from small intestine to other organs and urea from the liver to the kidneys
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What are platelets?
Platelets are small fragments of cells that dont have a nucleus. They are involved in the process of forming clots and wounds.
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What does Xylem do?
Transports water and solutes from the roots to the leaves of a plant
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What are the two systems for the transportation of substances in a plant?
Xylem and Pholem which are continuous tubes
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What does Phloem do?
Transports food from the leaves to growing tissues and storage tissues (translocation)
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What is transpiration?
The process by which water exaporates and diffuses from the leaves which results in more water being drawn up from the roots
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What are Xylem and Phloem together known as?
Vascular Bundles
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What process does water go through in the xylem??
Water is absorbed from soil through root hair cells, it moves by osmosis from root cell to root cell until it gets to xylem, Transported through xylem vessel in the stem to leaves, then does transpiraition
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What is the difference in the columns in Xylem and Pholem?
Xylem's columns are made of dead cells and phloems are made of living
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How does the Phloem work?
Made of columns of living cells which small holes in the ends to allow stuff to flow through. The transport goes in both directions
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What is the transpiration stream?
On the leaf water is being lost through evaporation and diffusion so more water moves up the xylem tube from the roots, up the stem and into the leaves
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What factors effect transpiration rates?
Increases in bright light as the stomata open wider to allow more carbon dioxide in for photosynthesis. Higher temperatures make it go faster
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does blood do?

Back

It carries substances around the body

Card 3

Front

What do the arteries do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do the veins do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the capillaries

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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