The Labour Government 1964-1970

  • Created by: Emilia1
  • Created on: 14-04-17 17:43
What made Harold Wilson seem classless?
He was the first PM to be educated at a secondary school, smoked a pipe and had a Yorkshire accent
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When did Wilson devalue?
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What three things forced Wilson to devalue when he did?
-Outbreak of the Arab-Israeli war closing the Suez canal and a number of dock strikes in London and Merseyside harmed trade -october, worse monthly trade deficit in British history -dealers sold sterling and bank rate raised to 16%
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How much did Wilson devalue by?
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What caused the sterling crisis of 1966?
Seamen strikes which hit exports
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How did Callaghan prevent devaluation after the sterling crisis's of 1965 and 1966?
1965- US loan, cut imports with temporary tax, deflate economy by putting up income tax to 41.25% -1966 raising bank rate, cut gov spending, restrictions on HP, Prices and incomes bill, wage and price freezes
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When was the National plan abandoned?
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Did Callaghan's measures to prevent devaluation in 1965 work?
Yes as by 1966 there was low unemployment, rising living standards, earnings up by 11% from 1964
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When had Atlee devalued?
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Why was 1968 described as the 'Arctic Winter of the Treasury'?
BoP crisis continued pressuring gov to devalue further, pushed through tough measures to deflate economy-Jenkins made tax increases of £923million, £3billion cut from tech budget, 20% voters said they would vote labour
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What were the disadvantages of devaluation?
-politically damaging, Treasury thought it would lead to increased inflation, short term solution, affect poorer countries in the commonwealth, Wilson secretly agreed with US not to devalue
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What did Reggie Maulding say as he left No.11 in 1964?
'Sorry, old ****, to leave it in this shape'
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What was the aims of the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA)?
-annual growth targets of 4% -national system of 'economic planning councils' -establish voluntary agreement about wages and prices with industrialists, unions and civil servants -secure restraint needed to prevent inflation
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When was the DEA abandoned?
1967 when Brown was moved to the Foreign Office
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What was the Prices and Incomes Policy of 1967?
Government intervention to set limits on price rises and to call for wage restraint in negotiations between unions and employers to keep down inflation
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What were the key points of Barbara Castle's white paper 'In Place of Strife' in 1969?
-28 day cooling off period -government could impose settlement when unions were in dispute with each other -strike ballots -industrial relations court
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Why was 'In Place of Strife' introduced in 1969?
Because of the Conservatives's 'Fair Deal At Work'
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Why did 'In Place of Strife' fail in 1969?
-many Labour MP opposed -unions gave Labour votes and funding -people in favour would probably vote Tory anyway
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What percentage did the Conservatives win in the 1970 election versus labour?
Conservatives=46% of the vote Labour=43% of the vote
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What was the NICRA and what did they campaign for?
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association who condemned gerrymandering and wanted disbanding of the B specials and fair distribution of social and financial resources
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Who were the B specials?
Protestant reserve police force on which the full-time police could call upon
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When was the NICRA's first public protest?
August 1968
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What NICRA protest ended in violence?
October 1968 in Londonderry
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Who was the leader of the anti-catholic movement?
Ian Paisley
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When did Callaghan as foreign secretary send British troops into Northern Ireland?
August 1969
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What protest happened in 1969 which ended in two days of rioting?
Loyalist Apprentice Boys went ahead with their annual march in Derry and were attacked by nationalists in the Catholic area of Bogside. The RUC tried to storm the area but were held back in two days of rioting
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What did the Protestants want?
They were Unionists and so favoured the union with Britain
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What did the Catholics want?
They were nationalists/republicans and so favoured the unity with Ireland
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How did Wilson unify Labour?
concentrated on technology and modernisation and minimised underlying tensions like those over Clause IV
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Why was Wilson threatened by Jenkins and Brown?
He had defeated Brown in the 1963 leadership contest and Brown was resentful he wasn't made foreign secretary 1964. He was suspicious of Jenkins as he was a Gaitskellite and did not suppoort his liberalising legislation
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What highlighted the Soviet threat to Europe 1964-1970?
1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
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Why was Wilson's 'moral' support of the Vietnam war ineffective in relations with the USA and British public?
US wanted more support, Australia had sent forces, Labour MPs and supporters wanted Wilson to condemn it
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When did the Vietnam war escalate?
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Why was Britain unable to give the US military support in Vietnam?
Could not afford military involvement but Wilson needed support of the US to stop devaluation. 'We can't kick our creditors in the balls'
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How did the public show their opposition to the Vietnam war?
1965, teachings on Vietnam at Oxford + LSE, Vietnam Solidarity Campaign 1966 support among uni students, March 1968 violence at demo near American embassy, 'Battle of Grosvenor Square' 200 arrested, oct 1968 30,000 demonstrated
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Which prominent Labour MP had fought against Britain's first EEC application and what did he say?
Hugh Gaitskell said it would 'be the end of thousand years of history'
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Who were hostile to the EEC and who weren't?
Michael Foot, Barbara Castle and the unions were hostile and Jenkins and Brown (Foreign secretary) were not
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Why did Wilson back a new EEC application in October 1966?
More convinced of the economic arguments, wanted to keep Labour united
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Why did the 1966 EEC application keep Labour united on Europe?
The prospects of it succeeding were not good-half hearted and de Gaulle still president- so those hostile to EEC did not put up too much opposition
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When did de Gaulle veto Britain's second application?
November 1967 as he wanted assurances that Britain would detach itself from the 'special relationship'
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What were the international implications of Jenkin's cuts from the 1967 devaluation?
high-tech war plane TSR2 abandoned, withdrawal from east Suez accelerated, troops pulled out of Aden, Arabian Gulf, Malaysia and Singapore by the end of 1971
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What did Healey, Minister of defence do in response to Jenkins' 1967 cuts?
White paper in 1967 set timetable for withdrawals from Aden, middle east, Malaysia, Singapore. Began process of spending cuts to bring defence budget below £2billion by 1970
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What did the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland break up into in the 1960s?
Northern Rhodesia became the independent Zambia, Nyasaland became Malawi, Southern Rhodesia wanted independence but Britain would not allow this unless they had majority rule
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What did the President of Southern Rhodesia, Ian Smith do in 1965?
Issued Unilateral Declaration of Independence without accepting majority rule
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When did Wilson and Ian Smith meet for talks on HMS Tiger off Gibraltar?
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Why did Britain's sanctions not have a significant effect on Southern Rhodesia in 1967?
Oil sanctions didn't work because they got oil through Mozambique or the oil companies just ignored it. South Africa continued to trade with Rhodesia
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When did more talks between Wilson and Smith take place and what were the consequences of Southern Rhodesia's independence?
1968 on HMS Fearless but Smith did not give in, it upset the Commonwealth and many on the Labour left and made Britain look weak
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Which play was banned in 1967 which led to George Strauss introducing a bill to abolish theatrical censorship?
'Early Morning'
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When was the law passed that ended theatrical censorship and what did it mean?
1968, plays no longer had to be submitted to Lord Chamberlain for approval before they could be performed ('Hair' 1968 showed nudity)
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Was the censorship of films reduced in 1960s?
No films were still categorised by British Board of Film Censors
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Which films of the 60s were more daring?
'Darling' 1965 'Alfie' 1966 'here we go round the mulberry bush' 1967
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What kind of issues did TV begin to tackle?
sex, violence, politics and religion
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What did the Lady Chatterly's Lover case in 1960 allow?
topics and language people wouldn't have risked before
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When was the Divorce Reform Act passed and what did it change?
1969, couples could divorce if they had lived apart for two years and both wanted a divorce or lived apart for five years and one wanted the divorce
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When was homosexuality decriminalised?
1967 with the Sexual Offences Act, both had to consent and be over 21 and it had to be in private
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What did Majority Verdicts do in 1967?
So a decision could be reached if 10 jurors agreed rather than 12
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When was capital punishment abolished permanently?
1969 (it was abolished for a trial period from 1965)
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When had the Conservatives reduced the number of offences carrying the death penalty?
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When was the Abortion Act passed and what were the conditions for an abortion?
1967, two doctors had to certify that there was a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the mother or the child may be born with serious abnormalities
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What disaster had swayed the public's opinion more in favor of abortion in 1959-1962?
Thaliode disaster
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How did most of Labour's liberalising reforms get passed 1964-1970?
By private members' Bills (provision for backbench MPs to propose legislation)
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Why did the triparte school system not work?
It was seen as unequal as secondary modern pupils were seen as failures and the majority of grammar school places went to middle classes
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How many pupils were educated at comprehensive schools in 1964?
1 in 10
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When did Tony Crosland (who supported the comprehensive schools) become minister for education?
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What incentive did the Labour government provide to the Local Education Authorities to convert to comprehensive schools?
In 1966 the government made money for new school buildings if they drew up plans for a comprehensive school
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By 1970 how many comprehensive schools were there catering for how many state school pupils?
1145 schools catering for 1 in 3 state pupils
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What was the consequence of the change to comprehensive schools?
it caused disruption and some middle class parents turned to direct grant schools and independent schools
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What did the Robbins report on higher education find?
That Britain lagged behind France, Germany and the US in the provision of uni places and too many students followed arts-related courses instead of science and technology
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What was the government's response to the Robbin's report?
polytechnics replaced Colleges of Technology-focusing on applied education for work and science, concentrating on teaching not research, 9 colleges of Advanced Technology- Unis, new unis founded, Royal College of Science in Scotland-Strathclyde uni
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What had the Labour government of 1964-70 achieved with higher education?
By 1968 30 polytechnics and 56 unis with new courses which opened higher education to all even though middle classes still dominated the old unis
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When did Labour create a study group proposing an experimental 'Univeristy of the Air' and when was Jenny Lee appointed to lead the Open University?
1963 and 1964
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When had the Open University received enough applications to begin studies?
1970 and students began their studies in 1971
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Who did the Open University allow to take degrees and how many students did it have by 1980?
Mature, women and disadvantaged students and by 1980 it had 70,000 students awarding more degrees than Oxford and Cambridge combined
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When was the first Race Relations act passed and what did it do?
1965 and it forbade the discrimination in public places 'on the grounds of colour, race or ethnic or national origins' it excluded housing and employment
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When was the second Race Relations act passed and what did it do?
1968 and it banned the racial discrimination in housing, employment, insurance and other services but it still had loopholes as employers discriminated against non-whites in interests of 'racial balance' and excluded complaints about Poilce
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What did a survey in Northern London in 1965 find?
1 in 5 objected to working with a black or Asian person, 50% would refuse to live next door to a black person and 9 out of 10 disproved of mixed marriage
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What did the 1968 Commonwealth Immigration Act do?
It limited the right of return to Britain for non-white Commonwealth citizens
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What did the influx of Kenyan Asians in February 1968 lead to?
Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech, Health sacked him, strikes by dockers and meat porters in London and a protest march in response, 75% of the population agreed with what Powell said
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What did the Race Relations board do?
set up to consider discrimination complaints, take part in publicity, research and finance of race relations but it couldn't compel witnesses to attend
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Why was the Race Relations board ineffective?
734/982 cases where dismissed in its first year and only upheld 10% of the 1241 complaints it recieved
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When did the Nottinghill Carnival start?
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What showed immigration in British society?
Asian corner shops and Chinese takeaways
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Why did youth culture show integration?
Hippies wore Indian and African cottons, Kaftans and Arabian pants, Indian scarves, ethnic beads. Jazz and Ska music, Beatles promoted yoga, love and peace and soft drugs
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What were Wilson's domestic policies and why did they not work?
emphasise technology and science in modernising Britain's economy, Jenkins first minister of aviation had trouble understanding briefings because of his unscientific mind and first minister of technology Cousins uninterested in technological devlopme
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When did Tony Benn become the Minister for Technology?
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What technology did Britain achieve but why did it not become the 'white heat of technology'?
Concorde in partnership with France but could't compete with USA's spending on research and development
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What did Tony Benn write in his diary about Britain and it's aims to be in the 'big league'?
Couldn't afford it; 'do we stay in with Europe or do we become an American satellite?
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What were the significance of the Seamen's strike in 1966 and the Docker's strike in 1967?
Impact on BoP preventing goods being exported, demonstrated old-style union bosses losing control with 'wildcat' strikes
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What was the Conservative proposal for reform?
Fair Deal at Work 1968 which was well received and called for compulsory cooling off periods
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When 'In Place of Strife' failed what did Wilson bring in?
'A Solemn and Binding Agreement' where the TUC agreed to monitor strikes and labour disputes and use its influence to settle them. It was a humiliating climb-down-'Solomon Binding'
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Apart from the Solemn and Binding agreement what else did Wilson have to rely on the unions for?
his prices and incomes board
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When were each of these acts passed; a) Family Planning Act b) Equal Pay Act c) Matrimonial Property Act
a) 1967 b) 1979 c) 1970
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What percentage of women student were there in higher education in 1970
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When was the Women's National Co-ordination Committee's first conference and what were their demands?
1970, equal pay, free contraceptive advice and abortion on request, equal educational and job opportunities, free 24hour childcare
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What percentage of women reached managerial jobs in 1970?
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What was the 2nd wave feminism in the US and what did it lead to in the UK?
Betty Friedan:'The Feminine Mystique' 1963, led to articles and books like:'Women: The longest revolution' Mitchell 1966 'The Female ******' Greer 1970
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Why was there little progress for female equality 1964-70?
Duty of a women the same, childminders rare, girls education domestic slant, left school minimum age, married early, jobs in clerical and service with poor pay and little prospects
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What did the Matrimonial Property Act 1970 do?
Work of the wife taken into account in divorce settlements either at home or in employment
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Card 2


When did Wilson devalue?



Card 3


What three things forced Wilson to devalue when he did?


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Card 4


How much did Wilson devalue by?


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Card 5


What caused the sterling crisis of 1966?


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