Saddam Hussein

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  • Created by: katewells
  • Created on: 10-05-16 20:10
When was Saddam Hussein born?
28th April 1937
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Who was Saddam's father?
A landless peasant who died before he was born
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Who did Saddam's mum (Sabha) remarry to after his fathers death?
Hassan al Ibrahim
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How did Hassan al Ibrahim influence Hussein?
He was a violent bully who prevented Saddam from going to war and sent him on criminal errands
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What age did Saddam learn to read and write?
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Who was Khairallah Tulfah?
Saddam Hussein's uncle
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When did Tulfah become Saddam's father figure?
1947 after he was released from prison for joining an attempt to drive Britain out of Iraq in 1941
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What did Khairallah instill upon Saddam?
Arab Nationalism and a hatred towards the Hashemite monarchy
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What is Arab Nationalism?
The belief that all Arabs were linked by ties of language, culture, history and religion and therefore should be one Arab Nation
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How did Khairallah ensure Saddam had an education?
Installed him in primary school
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Where did Saddam move to with his uncle and what did he enroll in?
Baghdad to enroll in High school
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Why did Saddam enroll in High School?
With the aim of attending the Baghdad military academy in 1957 but he failed the entrance exam
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When did Saddam join the Baath party?
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What was the Baath's party motto?
Unity, Liberation and Socialism
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What anti-government did Saddam participate in to show his loyalty to his uncle in 1958?
He assassinated a local government official called Tikrit
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Saddam was selected to participate in the assassination of Iraq's leader, what was this leaders name?
General Abdul Karim Qassem
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What happened as a result of Saddam's attempt to assassinate Qassem?
He was injured and forced in exile in Egypt where he continued his education
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When was Qassem overthrown?
February 1963
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Who replaced Qassem?
A government of army officers and Baath members
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What was Saddam's first position in the government?
Central farmers office
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What was the role of Central farmers office?
Finding ways to improve the position of peasantry
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What was the name of the prime minister that Saddam befriended?
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What did the new president Abdul Salam Arif do?
Ousted to party as he was bored of the infighting
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How did Arif leaving the Baath party aided Saddam?
Extremists in the Baath party were weakened and Bakr's position grew
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What did Saddam become a member of in 1964 for being loyal to Bakr?
Member of regional command
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What year was Saddam responsible for security affairs?
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What did Saddam plot in September 1964 and what happened as a result?
A coup to replace President Arif but the plans were uncovered and he spent 2 years in jail before escaping
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How did Saddam try to restructure the party's organisation in Iraq?
By establishing a new military force and expanding networks throughout the country
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Who did Saddam make links with that were sympathetic to the Baath party?
Senior army officers who held key positions in government
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What caused president Arif flew to London and Bakr to replace him?
A bloodless coup on July 1968
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What did Saddam order two powerful colonels to do and why?
Go abroad and not return resulting in Saddam becoming Deputy Chairman
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How long did it take Saddam to convert to Bakr's right hand man to the presidency?
11 years
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As early as 1972 what impact did Saddam have over the Baath party?
He was very influential
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What were the two key elements to Saddam's success?
Out maneuvering and eliminating rivals
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As Saddam was in Charge of security apparatus, what was he able to do?
He could easily uncover and invent conspiracy plots
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How did Hussein deal with those that had similar positions as him in government?
Targeted civilians and high ranking military personnel
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Who did Hussein give positions on the command council to?
Close family and friends
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What did Saddam do whilst making sure Bakr's dignity was intact?
Keep and low profile
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What diplomatic initiative was Saddam involved in April 1972?
The signing of the treaty of friendship and cooperation with Soviet Russia ensuring Iraq had help from a super power
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What Iraqi nationalisation did Saddam support?
Oil Industry
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What projects did Saddam direct the new wealth towards due to the nationalisation of Iraqi oil industry?
Improvement of schools, hospitals and transport facilities
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What year did Saddam become president after Bakr's death?
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What did Saddam aim to do as soon as he became president of Iraq?
Eliminate any opposition
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What did a RCCs secretary general demand for?
A vote on the validity of the process
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When and why was the RCCs secretary general brought before a conference of senior Baath members?
22nd July 1979, to give a detailed account of his fabricated confessions of his crimes against the state
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How many of the RCCs secretarys general 66 co-conspirators were sentenced to death and sent to prison?
22 sentenced 33 imprisoned
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What became a regular feature of Saddam's rule by terror?
False accusations, arrests, torture and summary trials followed by execution or a prison sentence
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What was Saddam's first aim after becoming president?
Unifying Iraq
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What did the Kurds want?
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The Shiites were hostile towards what?
The Sunni regime
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Campaigns against the Kurds in 1987-8 and 1991 caused what destruction?
Half of Kurdish villages and towns destroyed, thousands of Kurds killed by mustard gas and cyanide and millions displaced
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What happened to the Kurds that did not flee to Iran or Turkey?
They were put in concentration camps in the Iraqi desert
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When was the attack on Halaja?
March 1988
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What happened in Halaja?
Iraqi spread poisonous gas over the are killing 5,000 and injuring 10,000
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In 1991 was cities revolted against the regime?
Basra, Najaf, Karbala
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What happened when the Shiites revolted against Saddam's regime?
Republican guards stormed the strongholds and carried out arrests and summary executions whilst civilians roped to the front of tanks and acted like shields whilst women and children were shot at sight
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In 1991, where did Saddam want to build in the Marsh Arabs?
A new waterway
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What did building a new waterway involve happening to the Marsh Arabs?
Destroying the marshes and displacing a group of Arabs whose culture had stretched back for centuries
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What happened to the Marsh Arabs who were not willing to move?
Victims of chemical attacks and starved to death once food supplies had been destroyed
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What did the population of the Marsh Arabs drop from?
250,00 to 30,000
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What 4 ways of propaganda did Saddam use to create a personality cult?
1) Permanent exhibition of Saddam's early life set out in Baghdad 2)Life story appeared on TV, newspapers and film frequently 3)Picture portraits on street corners and decorated government offices 4)By early 1980's over 200 songs praising him
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How else did Saddam create a personality cult?
He visited ordinary people in disguise to uncover what people thought of him and his policies (the host would pretend not to recognise him and when he as revealed they act shocked
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What did Saddam do in order to attend all the events he could?
He had doubles or lookalikes
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When was oil nationalised?
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What was the increase in revenues from 1968 to 1980?
$476 million to $26 billion
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What did the increase in oil revenues lead to?
A modernisation programme of the economy and social facilities instutions
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What 3 things did the new wealth fund?
Wage rises, tax cuts and food subsidies for basic foodstuffs
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How did Saddam improve electrification?
It was extended so remote villages were connected to the grid and poor families received gifts of televisions
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What type of heavy industry was developed?
Steel and coal
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What accompanied the building of railroads?
A countrywide network of oil piplines
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Why were new TV and Radio stations established?
To allow the government propaganda to reach a wider audience
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What did major building works improve?
Housing, schools and hospitals
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How did Saddam improve educations?
Schools and University places increased and Major campaigns to end adult illiteracy
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How did Saddam improve health care?
Hospital treatments were made free
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Why did Social spending have to take second place after 1980?
The first gulf war
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Who were Iraq's major suppliers of weapons?
Soviet union followed by France with other European states and Brazil with Yugoslavia
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What 7 military weapons was Saddam able to purchase?
Tanks, bombers, helicopters, transport aircraft, SAM missiles, artillery and electronic equipment
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How many divisions did the army increase from to?
10 to 12
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What 3 non conventional weapons did Saddam also want?
Biological, nuclear and chemical
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When did Saddam construct his first chemical warfare plant and where was it?
July 1979 near Akashat
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What chemical weapons was Stalin producing by 1980 and what did they all do?
Mustard, Tabun, VX, they attacked to nervous system
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The biological weapons produced included which 3 agents?
Cholera, anthrax and typhoid
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When did Saddam purchase the Osiraq research reactor and from where?
1976 from France
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What happened to Osiraq in June 1981?
Israelis bombed it and further attempts where destroyed by allied bombings in the gulf war
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What type of ruler did Saddam want to be?
An absolute ruler
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What were school children taught?
To worship their ruler
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What did Saddam tightly control in order to project himself in a positive light?
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What was run by the president's office and why?
Special courts to deliver a verdict that Saddam would approve of
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What was the production geared towards?
The state from both private and nationalised industry
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What was essential for a public career in the army or civil service or admission to university?
Baath Party Membership
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who was Saddam's father?


A landless peasant who died before he was born

Card 3


Who did Saddam's mum (Sabha) remarry to after his fathers death?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How did Hassan al Ibrahim influence Hussein?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What age did Saddam learn to read and write?


Preview of the front of card 5
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