The emergence of a communist dictatorship, 1917-41

What political ''organisation'' did Lenin establish in 1917?
Sovnarkom - a Bolshevik only government
1 of 144
Who walked out of the Congress of Soviets?
Mensheviks, and right-wing SR's.
2 of 144
Who was able to govern considering that these parties had walked out?
The Bolsheviks and the left wing SRs.
3 of 144
What was Lenin's role in Sovnarkom?
He was the chairman.
4 of 144
What was Trotsky's role in Sovnarkom?
Commissar for Foreign Affairs.
5 of 144
What was Sovnarkom?
A government of political commissars (all Bolshevik)
6 of 144
What did Sovnarkom have the power to do?
Rule by decree without consulting other parliamentary bodies
7 of 144
What was the Decree on Peace?
An immediate end to the war.
8 of 144
What was the Decree on Land?
All land was to be divided and shared equally and was now the property of the people.
9 of 144
What was the Decree on Worker's Control?
Gave workers control of the factories.
10 of 144
What did Lenin nationalise in 1917?
The banks and Church lands.
11 of 144
Which decree was popular with the peasantry?
The Decree on Land - people believed land should be shared out equally.
12 of 144
What did many factory committees want from government?
A representative government (all of the socialist parties).
13 of 144
Who were the burzhui?
The bourgeoisie/class enemy.
14 of 144
Why did the concept of burzhui come about?
Lenin encouraged class warfare between the people with a propaganda campaign.
15 of 144
What were closed down to prevent the spread of Anti-Bolshevik propaganda?
Anti-Bolshevik newspapers.
16 of 144
What happened to the Civil Service?
There was a purge on the civil service and untrusted members were replaced by Bolsheviks.
17 of 144
When was the Cheka established?
December 1917
18 of 144
Members of which political parties were arrested in fear of opposition?
Kadets, Mensheviks and right wing SRs.
19 of 144
What did Lenin's political opponents hope for?
A Constituent Assembly (where they would hopefully be elected).
20 of 144
Why did Lenin allow elections to go through, even though he was reluctant?
He knew he would face opposition if he did not allow the elections to take place.
21 of 144
Which party won the most number of seats?
The SRs.
22 of 144
Which day did the assembly meet (for the first and last time?)
5th January 1918
23 of 144
What did Lenin decide the Bolsheviks would do as a result of this?
Rule ''on behalf'' of the proletariat.
24 of 144
What happened to those demonstrating in favour of the assembly?
They were shot down by Red Guards.
25 of 144
What did Lenin outline in his book ''State and Revolution'' 1917?
The main principles of his ideology.
26 of 144
What did the peasants do to their nobles' land?
Divided it and shared it equally.
27 of 144
Why were Lenin's ideas so popular?
They reflected those of the Russian people - the Russian's wanted to end social privilege.
28 of 144
What did the workers do the in the factories?
Took control and made middle class men do manual labour and share their properties. (Decree on Worker's Control)
29 of 144
What did the creation of socialist society depend on, according to Lenin and Trotsky?
Worldwide socialist revolution.
30 of 144
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
3rd March 1918
31 of 144
Why was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?
Lenin had promised peace to the Russian people.
32 of 144
Why did Lenin sacrifice the chance of ''worldwide socialist revolution''?
He believed it was better to save the social progress that had already been made in Russia.
33 of 144
Who didn't Lenin want to share power with?
Other socialist parties
34 of 144
What was the significance of the Bolshevik-only Sovnarkom?
Russia became a one-party state.
35 of 144
When did the Bolsheviks become ''the Communist Party?"
March 1918
36 of 144
When was the Russian Civil War?
37 of 144
What did the government do as a result of the Civil War? (government itself)
They were forced to adopt a more centralised system and reverted to terror to enforce laws.
38 of 144
Which ''ban'' did Lenin introduce to maintain party unity?
''Ban on factions'' 1921.
39 of 144
Which things did Lenin do that Stalin also made a part of his ideology?
Ban on factions, Church persecution, the powers of the secret police were extended, ''show trials'' were used to condemn political enemies
40 of 144
Which party bodies shaped party policy?
The Central Committee and the Politburo
41 of 144
How many members were there in the Politburo?
42 of 144
Who were important members of the Politburo?
Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin
43 of 144
Which post was created in 1922 (Politburo)?
General Secretary (Gensek)
44 of 144
Who filled the post of General Secretary during Lenin's rule?
45 of 144
What was the main problem that the Bolsheviks faced in consolidating their power?
They lacked mass support
46 of 144
Who were the Bolsheviks opponents?
SR's, Mensheviks, Kadets, Tsarist army officers etc.
47 of 144
What was the cause of food shortages in 1918?
Peasants were reluctant to sell any extra grain they produced because there was little to exchange for it.
48 of 144
What happened in the factories?
There was a lack of raw materials so industry went into decline.
49 of 144
What were the key elements of War Communism?
Grain requisitioning, industry placed under state control, factory discipline was imposed with fines for lateness etc., Food rationing was introduced with lowest priority = bourgeoisie.
50 of 144
How did Lenin justify the use of terror/Red Terror?
He said it was necessary to ensure the survival of the regime.
51 of 144
How many were estimated to have been killed between 1918 and 1921?
Around half a million people.
52 of 144
Why did Lenin realised state intervention in the economy/industry was necessary?
The workers did not have the necessary skills to run the factories - production fell. Peasants hoarded grain which meant people went hungry. It was necessary to feed the workers and soldiers to win the war.
53 of 144
Who was especially targeted in terms of grain requisitioning?
Kulaks/class enemies.
54 of 144
What does ''NEP'' stand for?
New Economic Policy
55 of 144
What was the rate of production in 1921 compared to 1914?
Production was only 20% of what it had been in 1914
56 of 144
How did peasants escape grain requisitioning?
They deliberately grew less and less grain.
57 of 144
When did Russia become ''the Soviet Union''?
58 of 144
When was the Kronstadt uprising?
59 of 144
How did Trotsky describe the Kronstadt sailors?
''The pride and glory of the Russian Revolution''.
60 of 144
When did Lenin announce NEP?
Aug 1921
61 of 144
What was included in NEP?
Grain requisitioning ended - peasants were instead taxed @20% of their grain. The state continued to control heavy industry. Small businesses and private trade were allowed.
62 of 144
What were some positive results of NEP?
An increase in grain into towns and cities meant that restaurants, cafes and shops were reopened. By 1923, cereal production was up by 23% from 1920. There was an end to revolts and civil unrest.
63 of 144
What were some negative results of NEP?
Revival of the kulak class and NEPmen traders and speculators. Agricultural prices fell while industrial ones rose.
64 of 144
What was the imbalance of agriculture and industrial prices known as?
The Scissors Crisis (1923)
65 of 144
What measure did the government introduce in order to recover from the ''Scissors Crisis"?
They brought industrial prices down and began taxing peasants in cash rather than in kind so they could not withhold grain.
66 of 144
When was Lenin's death?
21st January 1924
67 of 144
What happened to Lenin towards the end of his life?
He suffered a series of strokes and was unable to lead competently.
68 of 144
What did Lenin dictate in 1922?
His ''Testament'' in which eh gave his opinion of his fellow Politburo members.
69 of 144
What did Lenin say about Stalin?
Lenin was particularly critical of Stalin and suggested his removal from the position as General Secretary.
70 of 144
Who were Politburo members more afraid of (than Stalin)?
They were more afraid of Trotsky who was seen as the hero of the Civil War.
71 of 144
What did Trotsky believe in that Stalin did not?
Permanent, worldwide revolution.
72 of 144
Give some reasons for why Stalin gained power:
As Gen.Sek Stalin could control who spoke to Lenin and even told Trotsky the wrong date for his funeral, also set the agenda for the Party Congress. Stalin and Trotsky's pact weakened Trotsky's position. No one believed him to be a threat.
73 of 144
When was Trotsky forced out of his position ''Commissar for War''?
74 of 144
When was Trotsky exiled?
75 of 144
Define ''factionalism'':
The forming of factions or groups within a party which argue about policy and ideology
76 of 144
Define ''united opposition'':
Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev's campaign to the workers to try and gain support.
77 of 144
Define ''right deviation'':
Stalin's grounds to lead Bukharin and Rykov astray for not being proper communists.
78 of 144
Define ''orgburo'':
Organisational bureau - puts things into practice.
79 of 144
By what year was Stalin the undisputed leader of the USSR?
80 of 144
When were the Five Year Plans launched?
December 1927
81 of 144
What was the inspiration behind the Five Year Plans?
Stalin's ideal of Socialism in One Country, wanted to keep up with already industrialised Western Powers, NEP was ideologically capitalist rather than Communist, wanted central control over the economy (one-party state).
82 of 144
What was ''Gosplan''?
The government department which ran the FYP's. Set targets for every factory, mine etc. in the USSR.
83 of 144
What was ''vesenkha"?
The Supreme Economic Committee - also set targets for factories etc.
84 of 144
What was the focus for the first three FYPs?
Heavy industry - coal iron and steel, oil, machinery and electricity.
85 of 144
Which direction were targets set from 1929?
They were revised upwards in the hope that workers would achieve more than expected by 1932.
86 of 144
By how much did electricity output increase by 1932?
It trebled.
87 of 144
What did Stalin often do to the FYPs?
He would cut them short to make production levels seem more than they actually were.
88 of 144
When was the first FYP?
89 of 144
What did the first FYP focus on?
Heavy industry. 1,500 enterprises were opened.
90 of 144
When was the second FYP?
91 of 144
What did the second FYP focus on?
Heavy industry, large projects ''Gigantomania'' e.g Moscow Metro, Magnitogorsk.
92 of 144
When was the third FYP?
93 of 144
What did the third FYP focus on?
Heavy industry and armaments (prediction of war).
94 of 144
What was maintained throughout the 1930's?
Huge growth in industry.
95 of 144
Name three ''Gigantomania'' projects:
Magnitogorsk, Dnieprostroi Dam (1932), and Moscow Metro (1935)
96 of 144
By how much did the Dnieprostroi Dam increase electricity production by?
5 times!!!
97 of 144
When was the Stakhanovite Movement?
98 of 144
What was the Stakhanovite movement?
Alexeii Stakhanov (an ordinary man) allegedly mined 102 tonnes of coal in 5 hours, which was 6x his quota. His ''success'' was used to encourage other workers to work harder and increase production.
99 of 144
What was Stalin's idea for agriculture?
100 of 144
What is the Russian word for ''collective farm''?
Kolkhoz (Kolkhozi = plural).
101 of 144
By 1930, how much of Russian land was collectivised?
102 of 144
How much Russian land was collectivised by 1939?
103 of 144
What percentage of farm produce was taken by the state?
104 of 144
Why was so much farm produce taken by the state?
To feed the expanding workforce and later soldiers. This was similar in Lenin's War Communism.
105 of 144
How many Russian farmers were killed for resisting?
3 million
106 of 144
How many peasants died of famine?
5 million
107 of 144
Which Pravda article in 1930 was released about the success of collectivisation?
1930 - Dizzy with Success
108 of 144
What were the results of collectivisation?
Millions protested and refused to hand over produce. Decline in food production. Famine 1932-33. Soviet Union did not recover pre-war levels of grain production until 1939. Millions forced into labour camps, peasants way of life was ended.
109 of 144
What did Lenin and Stalin both encourage (living)?
Communal living
110 of 144
Why did they encourage communal living?
Opposition could be deterred easily.
111 of 144
What was the name for the new class elite?
112 of 144
What did Lenin make easier for men and women?
113 of 144
What did Lenin legalise (that Stalin later reversed)?
114 of 144
After a falling birth-rate in the 1930's, what did Stalin revert back to?
Traditional family values
115 of 144
What percentage of the workforce did women make up by 1940?
43% (remember - war factor).
116 of 144
What was seen as crucial for the development of a socialist society?
117 of 144
What did Lenin provide as a part of education?
Free schooling for all Russians.
118 of 144
Which subjects were a part of the new curriculum?
Maths, science, Russian language and literature with vocational training and ''socially useful labour''.
119 of 144
What percentage of people under the age of 50 are literate by 1941?
120 of 144
When was Komsomol formed?
121 of 144
When were the Pioneers formed?
122 of 144
How many members did Komsomol have by 1940?
10 million
123 of 144
What did Lenin think about religion?
He tolerated religious worship.
124 of 144
Name an opposition group?(opposition of religion)
League of the Militant Godless (1922)
125 of 144
How many churches were open for worship in 1940?
Just 500 (1% of 1917)
126 of 144
What did Lenin give to ethnic minorities?
Greater freedom and rights.
127 of 144
Which language was more widely used under Lenin's rule?
128 of 144
When did Russian become the official language of the Soviet Union?
129 of 144
What did Lenin think about art and literature?
''It should serve the people''.
130 of 144
When did all writers have to be a member of the Soviet Union of Writers?
131 of 144
What did Stalin call his movement of literature and art?
Socialist Realism
132 of 144
Name a popular novel in the 1930s:
''How the Steel was Tempered"
133 of 144
Name two authors who were condemned by the Stalinist regime:
Shostakovich, Boris Pasternak.
134 of 144
Did Lenin and Stalin appreciate the value of propaganda?
Yes - especially visual propaganda.
135 of 144
Name a propaganda film:
Lenin in October 1937
136 of 144
When did Stalin's wife commit suicide?
137 of 144
When did the annual purges commence?
138 of 144
Who was assassinated in 1934?
Kirov - a popular figure and potential rival to Stalin.
139 of 144
When were Zinoviev and Kamenev assassinated?
140 of 144
Who was assassinated in 1938 (three important people)?
Bukharin, Rykov and Yagoda (former head of the NKVD).
141 of 144
When did Stalin call a halt to the terror?
142 of 144
What did Stalin claim the 1936 constitution was?
''The most democratic in the world''.
143 of 144
What did the 1936 Constitution promise?
Autonomy for minority regions, elections every four years, civil liberties e.g freedom of speech (all of these were ignored).
144 of 144

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who walked out of the Congress of Soviets?


Mensheviks, and right-wing SR's.

Card 3


Who was able to govern considering that these parties had walked out?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was Lenin's role in Sovnarkom?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What was Trotsky's role in Sovnarkom?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »