The collapse of autocracy 1894-1917 (Nicholas II and his downfall)

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When did Nicholas II become Tsar?
1894 (after the death of his father).
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How old was he when he took over government control?
26
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Which subjects did he struggle with in his tutoring?
Politics and economics.
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Who did he dismiss as Finance Minister in 1903?
Sergei Witte
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How much did the urban population grow by from 1867 - 1917?
7 million - 28 million (quadrupled).
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What were the problems that caused so much unrest in the early 1900's?
Growth in urban population, strikes + trade unions were banned before 1905 (took place illegally), women and peasants ignored - drive for industrialisation, Nicholas - no control, new political parties, demand for change (zemstva/liberals),
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What were the years 1903-1904 known as? (bird)
The Red Cockerel
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What did peasants' still owned by their landlords do to their landlords' farming land?
They set fire to grain, destroyed large areas of land and vandalised their landlords' property.
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How much of the population did factory workers make up by 1914?
10%
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How many strikes were there in 1904?
90,000
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What was the result of these strikes?
They were made illegal.
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Which union was Sergei Zubatov (head of the Okhrana) responsible for?
The Mutual Assistance League 1901
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When did Zubatov legalise trade unions?
1900
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When was the Mutual Assistance League disbanded?
In 1903 due to striking.
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Why was the creation of the Mutual Assistance League significant?
Showed a desire for liberal change - even from the head of the police.
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Which trade union did Father Georgii Gapon create in 1904?
The Assembly of St. Petersburg Factory Workers.
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How many members did Gapon's trade union have by 1905?
Around 9,000 members.
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What percentage of the population did the urban working class make up by 1900?
3%
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How much did the urban population make up by 1914?
10%
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What percentage of St.Petersburg rented houses had no running water?
40%.
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When was night-time work for women and children banned?
1885.
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When were contracts of employment introduced?
1886.
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When was female and child labour banned in mines?
1892
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When were working hours reduced to 11.5 per day?
1897
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When were factory inspectorate expanded?
1903
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When was health insurance introduced?
1912
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When did the Russo-Japanese War take place?
1904-1905.
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Why did the Russo-Japanese War take place?
Disagreements over dominance of Manchuria and Korea, both countries wanted land and economic benefits, Russia was fighting for a warm water port, distraction against strikes and uprisings in the mainland, Japanese attacked Port Arthur.
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Where did the Russo-Japanese war take place?
Mainly fought on the Liadong Peninsula.
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Why did Russia lose the war?
Lack of transport for troops - the Trans-Siberian railway was not complete so it took 9 months for Russia to reach fighting ground. 1905 Revolution was a hindrance.
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What were the consequences of the war?
Russia drastically decided to improve their army, political unrest and opposition was growing in Russia.
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What did Gapon's petition demand from the Tsar?
An improvement in working conditions for industrial workers and an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
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How many signatures did the petition receive?
150,000.
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When was Bloody Sunday?
9th January (Old Style date), 22nd January.
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What was Bloody Sunday?
A peaceful march led by Georgii Gapon at the Winter Palace. It ended with hundreds dead.
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How many marched on Bloody Sunday?
20,000 people.
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Who was murdered in Feb 1905?
Nicholas' uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (he was assassinated by the SR's).
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What happened in March and April 1905?
Continued strikes, especially in the Urals.
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What happened in June/July 1905?
Naval mutiny. Liberals demand a state Duma.
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What happened in Aug 1905?
New of Russia's defeat. Strikes get progressively worse and peasants form a ''Peasants' Union''. Tsar promises a state Duma but it excludes women and Jews.
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What happened in Sept 1905?
Printing workers go on strike.
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What happened in Oct 1905?
Russia faces its first general strike.
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What happened in Nov 1905?
Lenin returns to Russia after being exiled. Peasant redemption payments are reduced significantly.
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What happened in December 1905?
The government arrest 300 members of the St.Petersburg soviet.
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What did the October Manifesto promise?
Civil liberties e.g freedom of speech, conscience, press and assembly for all. A state Duma, elected by universal suffrage, to pass laws.
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What was the impact of the Manifesto?
Liberals accepted the Manifesto but the SR's and the SD's rejected it, many works continued to support the SR's and the SD's because the were sceptical of the Tsar's promises, peasant uprising continued especially with the promise of new land.
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Why was the October Manifesto such a sham?
Promises were abandoned very quickly - unions and newspapers were shut down. Revolts continued with the growing influence of left wing political parties (Bolsheviks), workers were brutally suppressed, Tsar selected the Duma's membership himself.
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How did the Tsar reassert autocratic rule?
Many were still on his side, e.g the police who arrested 300 members of the St.Petersburg Soviet. Leaders of soviets were either arrested or exiled to Siberia. Government promised an end to redemption payments.
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When were the Fundamental Laws introduced?
April 1906
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What were introduced as a part of the Fundamental Laws 1906?
The Tsar had 'supreme autocratic power'', he was allowed to appoint/dismiss ministers, summon and dissolve the Duma and rule by decree when the Duma was not in session.
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In what ways was the Duma democratic?
Zemstva elected the State Council, 5 year terms, allowance of political parties.
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In what ways was the Duma undemocratic?
Never lasted a full five year term (was dissolved by the Tsar when it became too radical), peasants only received 42% of the vote, Tsar had too much ruling power.
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When was the First Duma?
May - June 1906.
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What happened in the First Duma (May-June 1906)?
Dominated by Kadets and peasant representatives. Demanded radical constitutional reform. Passed a vote of no confidence in the government and was subsequently dissolved.
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When was the Second Duma?
Feb - June 1907
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What happened in the Second Duma (Feb - June 1907)?
Stolypin engineered the election to help Octobrists (Tsarist supporters) win, Bolsheviks and SR's participated and increased the no. of radical deputies, unsuccessful and was soon dissolved.
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When was the Third Duma?
Nov 1907 - June 1912
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What happened in the Third Duma?
1907 Electoral Law reduced the number of peasant and workers votes. As a consequence, Octobrists and Conservatives dominated. Was dissolved due to disputes.
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When was the Fourth Duma?
Nov 1912 - 1917
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What happened in the Fourth Duma?
Right-wing and left-wing deputies could not cooperate and the fourth Duma was increasingly ignored. It was dissolved in 1915 after demands for more power.
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How much did the middle class grow by between 1850 and 1900?
144%
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How much did the Russian economy grow by each year between 1892 and 1914?
8% per annum.
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When was the new rouble introduced on a gold standard?
1897
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What was raised to encourage foreign investment?
Interest rates.
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By 1914, how many kilometres of railway track spanned Russia?
62,000 km
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What ranking was Russia by 1914 in terms of world economy?
5th largest industrial power.
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Define kulak:
A profit orientated farmer.
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What year was the mir abolished?
1906
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How many peasants moved to Siberia by 1915?
3.5 million.
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What was the percentage of peasant ownership of land in 1905?
20%
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What was the percentage of peasant ownership of land by 1915?
Almost 50%
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What was Russia by 1909? (in terms of grain exports)
The worlds leading cereal exporter.
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When did famine occur under Nicholas II?
1898 and 1901
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How much grain did Russia produce in comparison to British farms?
Only 1/4 of what British farms produced
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Why did the gap between the rich kulaks and the poor, landless peasants increase?
Too few peasants moved to the towns to ease the pressure on resources.
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What were the powers of the Church under Nicholas II?
Tsar ruled by ''divine right'', peasants wee heavily influenced by Church teachings which helped the regime, Church controlled censorship and could give punishments for social and moral crimes, the Church had authority over primary education.
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What became a crime under the Church?
To convert to another faith.
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By 1914, what percentage of children aged 8-11 were in primary education?
45%
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What was being published in 1914?
The works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky.
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Give examples of liberal opposition:
Zemstva, Tolstoy, Beseda, Kadets etc.
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When was ''Beseda'' formed?
1899
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When did Beseda merge with the Union of Liberation?
1903
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When was the Socialist Revolutionary Party established?
1901
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How many political assassinations did the SR's carry out from 1901 - 1905?
2,000
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Who did the SR's assassinate in 1911?
Pyotr Stolpyin.
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How many SR's were executed?
Around 2,000.
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What did Plekhanov found in 1883?
The first Russian Marxist association - the Emancipation of Labour.
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When was the Social Democratic Worker's party founded?
1898
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When did the SD's split into two separate parties?
1903
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What does the word ''Bolshevik'' mean?
Majority
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What does the word ''Menshevik'' mean?
Minority
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When did Germany declare war on Russia?
19th July 1914.
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What was St.Petersburg renamed as to sound less German?
Petrograd
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The sale of which drink was forbidden?
Alcohol (mainly vodka)
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The Battle of Tannenburg left how many soldiers dead or wounded?
300,000
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What led the Russians to retreat?
Inadequate clothing and footwear, a lack of food and munitions.
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Why did the zemstva resent the government during the war?
Their authority became restricted even thought they were doing more for medical relief than the government.
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What was the problem with the alcohol ban?
Peasants brewed their own
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What did the Kadets,Octobrists and Progressives form in Aug 1915?
The Progressive bloc - they demanded constitutional reform.
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Who took over as leader of the Russian army in Aug 1915?
Nicholas II
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What was Nicholas held responsible for?
Failure of the Brusilov offensive.
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Who took over central government in Nicholas' absence?
Tsarina Alexandra and Rasputin
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When Rasputin assassinated?
Dec 1916
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How much was the war costing Russia in 1914?
1,500 million roubles
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How much was the war costing Russia by 1918?
14,500 million roubles
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Why was production lacking during the war?
Workers and peasants were conscripted to fight.
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Why were there distribution inefficiencies?
The railway was inefficient because of fuel shortages.
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What were railways prioritised for?
Transport of soldiers and military supplies.
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By how much did the cost of living increase by in Petrograd?
300%!!!
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What were some of the causes of the February Revolution?
Tsar was weak and indecisive - didn't want to let go of autocracy. The political system was undemocratic. Growth in the liberal, middle classes.
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What predicted revolution by 1917?
Secret police reports and propaganda.
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How many workers demonstrated on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday?
150,000
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How many workers went on strike on 14th Feb 1917?
100,000
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What instigated panic buying on 19th Feb 1917?
Bread was going to be rationed from March 1st.
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How many workers went on strike on 22nd February 1917?
20,000
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How many protested on International Womens' Day (Feb 23rd) 1917?
200,000
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What happened on the 27th February 1917?
Petrograd garrison mutinied against their officers. Turning point in the revolution.
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What happened on March 1st 1917?
The Provisional Government are established with the support of the Duma and Soviet.
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What happened on March 2nd 1917?
The Tsar abdicated.
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What happened on March 3rd 1917?
The Tsar and his family are placed under house arrest.
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What was the coalition of the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet known as?
Dual authority/dual power
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Who became PM of the Provisional Government?
Prince Lvov
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Who was on the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet?
Alexander Kerensky
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Why did the Provisional Government lose support?
Losing the war, PS and PG could not agree on matters, real wages fell and prices rose. No Okhrana.
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What was the slogan associated with Lenin's April Theses?
''Peace, Bread and Land''.
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What did the April Theses do for the Bolsheviks?
Created unity under Lenin's leadership and allowed him to gain support from workers and the peasantry.
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What were the July Days?
A series of armed uprisings, 3-4 July.
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What was the issue caused by the July Days?
They threatened to undermine Lenin's efforts so far. Lenin fled to Finland and Trotsky was captured.
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What was the Kornilov Affair?
A military coup led by harsh general Kornilov.
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When was the Kornilov Affair?
25th - 30th August 1917.
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How many members did the Bolsheviks have by Oct 1917?
200,000
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How many members of the Red Guard were there by Oct 1917?
10,000
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When did Kerensky flee Russia?
25th October 1917
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When was the Storming of the Winter Palace?
26th October 1917
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How old was he when he took over government control?

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26

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Which subjects did he struggle with in his tutoring?

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Card 4

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Who did he dismiss as Finance Minister in 1903?

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How much did the urban population grow by from 1867 - 1917?

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