The Cell Lecture 22

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  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 01-05-16 22:42
Animal defense system
based on the distinction between self and nonself
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Nonspecific (innate) defences
inherited mechanisms that protect the body from many different pathogens
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Specific defenses
adaptive mechanisms that protect against specific targets
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Lymphoid tissues
thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, essential parts of the defense system
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White blood cells + platelets
found in the blood and lymphatic system
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Lymph
consists of fluids that accumulate outside of the bloodstream in the lymphatic system
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Lymphatic system
branching system of tiny capillaries connecting larger vessels
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Lymph ducts
eventually lead to a large lymph duct that connects to a major vein near the heart
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Lymph vessels
have sites of small, roundish lymph nodes
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Phagocytes
white blood cells, engulf and digest foreign materials
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Lymphocytes
white blood cells, most abundant, two types: B and T cells
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T cells
migrate from the circulation to the thymus, where they mature
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B cells
circulate and collect in lymph vessels and make antibodies
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Antibodies
secreted by B cells, bind specifically to certain substances
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T cell receptors
cell surface receptors that bind nonself substances on the surface of other cells
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Major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC)
exposed outside cells of mammals, help to distinguish self from nonself
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Cytokines
soluble signal proteins released by T cells, bind and alter the behaviour of their target cells
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Skin
acts as a physical barrier to pathogens
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Bacteria and fungi on body surface
compete for space and nutrients against pathogens
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Tears, nasal mucus and saliva
contain enzyme lysozyme, attacks the cell walls of many bacteria
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Mucus and cilia
in respiratory system, trap and remove pathogens
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Ingested pathogens
destroyed by hydrochloric acid and proteases in stomach
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Small intestine
bile salts kill some pathogens
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Complement proteins
about 20 in vertebrate blood, attach to microbes, helping phagocytes recognize and destroy them, activate the inflammation response and attract phagocytes to the site of infection, lyse invading cells
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Interferons
produced by cells that are infected by a virus, increase resistance of neighbouring cells to the same or other viruses
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Phagocytes
ingest pathogens
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Neutrophils
phagocyte that attacks pathogens in infected tissue
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Monocytes
phagocytes that mature into macrophages, live longer and consume larger numbers of pathogens
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Eosinophils
kill parasites, such as worms, that have been coated with antibodies
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Dendritic cells
highly folded plasma membranes that can capture pathogens
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Natural killer cells
a class of nonphagocytic white blood cells, initiate the lysis of virus-infected cells and some tumour cells
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Inflammatory response
used in dealing with infection or tissue damage
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Mast cells and basophiles (white blood cells)
release histamine, triggers inflammation
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Histamine
causes capillaries to become leaky, allowing plasma and phagocytes to escape into tissue
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Complement proteins and other chemical signals
attract phagocytes, neutrophils arrive first, then monocytes
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Macrophages
engulf invaders and debris, responsible for most of the healing, produce several cytokines, may signal the brain to produce a fever
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Pus
compose of dead cells and leaked fluids
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

inherited mechanisms that protect the body from many different pathogens

Back

Nonspecific (innate) defences

Card 3

Front

adaptive mechanisms that protect against specific targets

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

thymus, bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, essential parts of the defense system

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

found in the blood and lymphatic system

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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