Leadership struggle background
Lenin died 1924. Left no clear indication of who should succeed him.
1 of 114
5 Bolsheviks that fought for the leadership
Stalin, Trotsky, Bukharin, Zinoviev + Kamenev
2 of 114
Think: Roles in major events, skills, background, Relationship w/ Lenin
3 of 114
Grey Blur. Minor role in 2 key events.
4 of 114
Administration. Understood peasants due to his upbringing. Loyalty to Lenin
5 of 114
Stalin. Lenins testament
Criticised by Lenin as his loyalty turned when Lenin fell ill. This went widely unknown by the Communist party
6 of 114
Trotsky: background + personality
Joined in 1917. Most heroic and glamorous contender. Gifted orator + theorist. Radical vision for future of Russia
7 of 114
Lead role in 2 key events. Gifted orator + theorist. Inspired the loyalty of RA.
8 of 114
While his vision appealed to young idealistic members, cautious communists viewed him as arrogant + too western + untrustworthy as he joined late
9 of 114
Trotsky, Lenins Testament
"most outstanding member"
10 of 114
Bukharin: Background and personality
Youngest of 5. Thinker and orator. Leading advocate of the NEP.
11 of 114
Lacked Trotskys arrogance = favourite of the party
12 of 114
Older commies thought he was too young to lead. LW radicals were suspicious of his economic policy.
13 of 114
Bukharin. Lenins testament
Criticised his theories as "not fully Marxist."
14 of 114
Zinoviev + Kamenev: Background / personality
Lenin's closest friends. OG members of the Bolsheviks
15 of 114
Zinoviev + Kamenev. strengths
As above, Lenin's closest friends and OG members
16 of 114
Zinoviev and Kamenev weaknesses.
History of disloyalty and cowardice. Both publically criticised Lenins plans for Oct. Revolution.
17 of 114
Who had minimal impact in which event and why?
Zinoviev in the Civil War. He was in the most expensive hotel in Petrograd surrounded by bishes.
18 of 114
19 of 114
System of Russian govt was not...
... a democracy
20 of 114
...The leadership struggle was fought internally and did not require popular support from the Russian people as a whole.
21 of 114
Structure of communist party, bottom up
Commy party members, local party, party congress, Central Committee, Politburo
22 of 114
Required to become leader was...
... majority support of the Politburo
23 of 114
Key to success
Party Congress. It elected the CC, which elected the Politburo
24 of 114
Why were positions / power bases important in terms of the leadership struggle
They helped determine popularity at Party congress level.
25 of 114
Stalins Position (1)
General Sec. 1) Set politburo agenda. 2) Selected delegates for Congress. 3) In charge of promotions / appointments.
26 of 114
Influence discussion at Politburo meetings. 2) Flood congress with his supporters. 3) Could reward those who displayed loyalty
27 of 114
Stalin's Position (2)
Head of the Rabkrin which controlled party discipline
28 of 114
Significance of leading the Rabkrin?
Investigate and sack anyone his opposition.
29 of 114
Head of Red Army
30 of 114
1) Members were threatened he may use it to seize power. 2) Gained loyalty of army, some were members. 3) Many were not tho, and could not attend Congress.
31 of 114
Editor of the Pravda
32 of 114
Could publish his own views and criticise others, shaping PUBLIC opinion
33 of 114
Zinoviev role and significance
Head of Petrograd party = loyalty of a large section of the Party
34 of 114
Kamenev role and significance
Head of Moscow party = loyalty of a large section of the Party.
35 of 114
Impact of power bases
on the leadership struggle
36 of 114
Despite Stalins roles being seen as X they gained him Y?
Mundane, they gained him power of PATRONAGE.
37 of 114
He used this power in 1923 to... and this had the effect of
...appoint 30% of delegates to Congress, giving him increasing control over important decisions
38 of 114
Trotsky's role. Appearance and reality.
High profile role which in reality commanded little power and ultimately made him appear threatening
39 of 114
Why were Zino,Kam and Bukkys popularity insignificant?
Stalin's power of patronage allowed him to undermine his opponents in their own power bases.
40 of 114
41 of 114
revolution would occur within an ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL economy.
42 of 114
Russian economy was...
43 of 114
2 schools of thoughts surrounding industrialisation
LW Dictatorship of industry. RW New Economic Policy
44 of 114
3 Key areas of each policy
Taxes, Farming, State-funding
45 of 114
Dictatorship of industry proposed
High Taxes for peasants to fund. / Encourage COLLECTIVE FARMS to increase agricultural productivity / Rapid state-funded industrialisation
46 of 114
The NEP proposed
Low taxes for peasants to fund GRADUAL industrialisation. / Allow the FREE MARKET + peasants to OWN their own farms to ensure the POPULARITY of the regime / Slow state-funded industrialisation
47 of 114
Who stood on the LEFT
Trotsky, believing it was a FULLY COMMUNIST POLICY. Zino + Kam joined in 1925. Stalin only in 1928
48 of 114
Degrees of support for the NEP
Bukharin was the leading advocate. Initially he had the support of the remaining 3 candidates. Zino + Kam bailed in 1925 to try win left support. Stalin breezed in 1928
49 of 114
Why was the NEP popular within the Party in the early 1920s (2)
Economic growth and increased production of CONSUMER GOODS. 2) Commys wary of increasing peasants taxes in fear of a backlash.
50 of 114
Why and when did support for the NEP decline?
1927. Growth figures had stagnated. Stalin bailed the following year.
51 of 114
Millions tonnes of grain in 1925, 26, 27 and 28?
1925 - 73. / 1926 - 77 / 1927 - 72 / 1928 - 73
52 of 114
IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIALISATION DEBATE
ON THE LEADERSHIP STRUGGLE
53 of 114
How did the economic situation within Russia from 1924 affect support for sides and people
Initial success, seen by a growing economy ensured the popularity of the RW.
54 of 114
How did commitment to the LW affect Trotsky
Made him appear foolhardy as the NEP was helping the economy to grow while his theory was untested.
55 of 114
How did timing affect the differences in success between Z+K and Stalins move to the left.
Z+K moved while it was still successful, undermining their bid as congress / majority supported the NEP
56 of 114
...Stalin abandoned the NEP was it was obviously failing.
57 of 114
Due to the NEPS failure, communists were more sympathetic to...
... radical left wing solutions.
58 of 114
Therefore his moved was treated...
...favourably, infact increasing his popularity
59 of 114
Bukharins resolve for the NEP...
...lost him CREDIBILITY
60 of 114
61 of 114
Lenin and Communists belief after the 1917 revolution
Russian revolution would spark worldwide revolutions. Russia would be one amongst many.
62 of 114
Situation by 1921
Apparent that world revolution was some way off
63 of 114
Foreign policy responded to this in two ways:
RW: Socialism in 1 Country. LW: Permanent Revolution
64 of 114
3 key areas of each foreign policy
1) Can socialism survive in 1 country? 2) Russia's role in triggering socialist revolutions. 3) Russia's immediate position at this time
65 of 114
RW: Socialism in 1 Country
Socialism can be built in Russia alone and there was no need for Russia to immediately incite revolutions in other countries. They will lead the rest of the world in time.
66 of 114
LW: Permanent revolution
No socialist society can exist on its own, therefore the security of Russia was dependant upon successful revolutions occurring in other countries. They should adopt an aggressive foreign policy.
67 of 114
When did divisions over foreign policy emerge?
68 of 114
Who advocated Socialism in 1 Country?
Stalin and Bukharin
69 of 114
Who advocated Permanent Revolution?
Trotsky. After they broke in 1925, so did Zino + Kam
70 of 114
Which policy appealed more to communists?
Socialism in one Country
71 of 114
Why was this view well received?
It appealed to Russian NATIONALISM, stressing Russia's importance as the first communist country
72 of 114
Why was PR received negatively?
It appeared defeatist, suggesting Russian communism was doomed due to the lack of european revolts
73 of 114
Why were people sceptical of PR?
Feared it would lead to war, a daunting prospect for those who had experienced both wars
74 of 114
How did the debate over foreign policy affect the leadership struggle?
Hindered the left wing. Stalin used it to discredit Trotsky, and after 1925 the United Opposition
75 of 114
MAKING AND BREAKING
76 of 114
What did Lenins death create / leave at the heart of Soviet Govt.?
A power vacuum.
77 of 114
Factions and alliances dominated Russian politics between...
... 1923 - 1928
78 of 114
During this time the Govt. was commanded by
Alliances with majority Politburo support. Minority support = Opposition
79 of 114
1923 - 25. Govt and Opposition (Led by)
Govt, Triumvirate (Stalin, Z+K). Minority = Left opposition (Trotsky)
80 of 114
1925 - 28. Govt and Opposition (Led by)
Govt = Duumvirate (Stalin + Bukharin). Opposition = United Opposition (3 others)
81 of 114
1928 - 29. Govt and Opposition (Led by)
Govt = Stalin VS Opposition = Bukharin
82 of 114
Purpose of Triumvirate
Thwart Trotskys attempt to be leader
83 of 114
Why was the Triumvirate wary of Trotsky?
Best known contender + his ambition was widely known.
84 of 114
X party Congress in Y?
13th Congress in 1924
85 of 114
Triumvirate defended the NEP against Trotsky's alternative. Lost vote = end of Trotsky's leadership ambitions.
86 of 114
What happened to the Triumvirate?
They lost their common enemy.
87 of 114
X party congress in Y?
15th Congress in 1927
88 of 114
Duumvirates policies won vote over United Oppositions
89 of 114
What were the Duumvirate's policies?
NEP and Socialism in 1 Country
90 of 114
What happened to the United Opposition's leaders after they lost the vote
Expelled from the party.
91 of 114
What did Stalin gain by abandoning the NEP in favour of left wing economic policies?
The support of the left wing
92 of 114
.Bukharin remainded commited to the NEP, which diminished his credibility when it was obviously failing.
93 of 114
What happened in 1928 which would trigger another vote between Govt. and opposition
Stalin introduced emergency economic measures, effectively ending the NEP.
94 of 114
What happened at a meeting of the Central Committee
Bukharins challenge was outvoted, confirming Stalin as the ruler of Russia.
95 of 114
Why did the alliances benefit Stalin and hinder the others?
Allowed Stalin to stay in the background while the others fought publically. While the others pettily squabbled, he gained party respect.
96 of 114
How did the alliances tactically benefit Stalin?
Allowed him to deal with his opponents one by one. Allowed him to maintain majority Politburo support - never associated with opposition faction.
97 of 114
DEVIOUS TACTICS +
98 of 114
5 events / areas demonstrating Stalin's cunning
Lenin's funeral, Lenin's Testament, Bukharin's medical, Faction fighting + Ideological tactics
99 of 114
Why was Lenin's funeral significant to the contenders?
Gave them a platform to show their loyalty to Lenin
100 of 114
Where was Trotsky at the time of Lenin's death?
Convalescing on the shores of the Black Sea
101 of 114
How did Stalin capitalise on this?
Told Trotsky the wrong date of the funeral. Trotsky missed funeral and seen as disloyal to Lenin.
102 of 114
Key bit of Lenin's testament?
Instructed senior communists to remove Stalin from his position.
103 of 114
Who was also criticised in the Testament?
Zio + Kam
104 of 114
How did Stalin capitalise on this?
Persuaded them to argue for Stalin to keep his post and the Testament should go unpublished. They convinced the CC and the Maj. of party never knew.
105 of 114
How did Stalin use his position to thwart Bukharin after 1928?
Prevented Bukharin from attending important meetings. IE: had his plane grounded twice to undergo medical
106 of 114
How did this affect Bukharin's bid for leadership?
Missed opportunities to extend influence within the CC.
107 of 114
Lenin banned X in Y?
Factions in 1921.
108 of 114
When did Stalin try to use this to setup who?
1928 to set up Bukharin
109 of 114
Spread rumours he was about to ally with Z+K. Bukharin called a secret meeting with the latter...
110 of 114
...Stalin placed Bukharin under surveillance and revealed the meeting to the CC, accusing Bukharin of factionalism.
111 of 114
How did Stalin's ideological tactics aid his attempt?
United the most popular policies at the time. Won support from both sides of the party.
112 of 114
Impact on leadership struggle (tricks)
Tricks gave him important advantage + discrediting tools at CRUCIAL moments of the struggle.
113 of 114
Impact on leadership struggle (ideology)
Ideological shift in 1928 = most appealing mix of policies, retain large support from right while getting new support from left.
114 of 114
Other cards in this set
5 Bolsheviks that fought for the leadership
Stalin, Trotsky, Bukharin, Zinoviev + Kamenev