Stalin in Power, 1928-53

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  • Stalin in power 1928 - 53
    • The elimination of Stalin's opponents
      • Before Stalin took control Lenin's government had been pluralistic, there were a number of powerful people in the communist party.
        • After the ban on factions, Stalin transformed the party in four ways.
          • He had established a ideological orthodoxy
          • He had destroyed the authority of other main contenders
          • he changed the nature of party membership
          • He had created the patronage system
          • When Lenin became ill, Stalin fought off is opponents to become the next successor
            • Zinoviev, best friend of Lenin, convinced party to ignore Lenin's testament; was back stabbed by Stalin in 1925
            • Bukharin; consistent communist, father son relationship with Lenin, but they disagreed; backstabbed by Stalin 1928
            • Trotsky, most famous member of gov. Important roles in revolution and civil war, Lenin's right hand man. Joined Bolsheviks late, disagreed with Lenin, (Not a true Leninist) Continually opposed Stalin, exiled.
      • Ideological Orthodoxy
        • Stalin had to establish that he, rather than others was a true Leninist.
          • Created the idea of socialism in one country, developing socialism without a global revolution.
          • Collectivization and industry, changing policy of NEP to radical communism, industrialization made through profit of agriculture.
            • Refused to work with other party idea. Saw them as a threat to communism and therefore arrested and exiled other leaders.
              • Created the idea of socialism in one country, developing socialism without a global revolution.
          • Refused to work with other party idea. Saw them as a threat to communism and therefore arrested and exiled other leaders.
        • Party Membership
          • To help with leadership struggle, Stalin introduced party membership, who often supported less intellectual Stalin.
            • As Stalin promoted party members, they tended to support Stalin to get well paid jobs, cared more about careers than goal of revolution.
          • Stalin began to set the issues for congress to discuss, pushing greater control over the party/
      • The Purges of the 1930's
        • Stalin's power was insecure. he feared he would lose power
          • Stalin responded to these perceived threats by launching the Great Terror, A campaign of arrests, torture, mass imprisonment and executions.
            • 10 million Soviet citizens, 10% of the population
          • Stalin established the Purges to reduce challenge of his authority by political rivals, and to blame economic problems on workers, instead of his policies
            • Show trials prosecuted Zinoviev, Kamenev, Burkharin and their supporters (Trotsky supporters too) Forced them to confessing.
              • Kirovs muder started purges, Stalins main rival was removed (most likely mudered by Stalin
            • Kirovs muder started purges, Stalins main rival was removed (most likely mudered by Stalin
            • Secret trials allowed Stalin to reomve all Red Army generals who worked under Trotsky, 8 generals, 37,000 officers.
        • Consequences of great terror
          • Eliminated Stalins rivals
          • Removed a whole generation of Leninists, Stalin could claim authority
          • Led to emergence of new generation of communists who owed their allegiance to Stalin.
      • Stalin's power over party and state
        • Lenin didnt define the party and the state, so the party became more powerful than the state
        • Stalin became leader of the party and used the party to enforce rule
        • The need for an efficient was highlighted during war so Stalin changed the organisation of the government
          • He ended mass terror so officials could work
          • He allowed state power to grow (make decisions)
          • Changed composition of Politburo so it became co-ordinated
          • He  created State defence comitee
        • Following the war Stalin kept power by placing government competition against eachother
        • Stalin started using terror again threatening those who opposed him
      • Stalin was wary of Leningrad power so executed many officials
      • Stalin tested the loyalty of his officials by imprisoning family
      • In conclusion Stalin ruled the party and had power over the state. They could not oppose Stalin.
      • Stalin fostered competition and used Terror. After his death heirs would have to revive party and state to save Soviet government

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