SPECIALIST COMMUNITY PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING

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DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP
INCREASING AMOUNT OF EXPOSURE INCREASES THE RISKS
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CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
INFORMATION ON HEALTH STATUS AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS IS COLLECTED FROM EACH SUBJECT AT ONE POINT IN TIME
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CHANCE
THE OBSERVED ASSOCIATION (DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE EXPOSED UNEXPOSED GROUPS) COULD BE DUE TO SAMPLING
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CONFOUNDING
AN ESTIMATE OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AN EXPOSURE AND THE DISEASE IS MIXED UP WITH THE REAL EFFECT OF ANOTHER EXPOSURE ON THE SAME DISEASE
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SELECTION BIAS
DIFFERENCE IN CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN THOSE SELECTED FOR THE STUDY AND THOSE WHO ARE NOT
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COHORT STUDY
FOLLOW UP TWO GROUPS OF PEOPLE OVER TIME AND COMPARE THE OCCURENCE OF DISEASE
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EPIDEMIOLOGY
DESCRIBES THE PATTERN OF DISEASE AND ILL HEALTH IN THE POPULATION (DESCRIPTIVE) - FOCUSES ON INCIDENCE ON AGE, ETHNICITY, SEX (ANALYTIC) - INVESTIGATING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT CAUSE OF DISEASE HOW EXPOSURES RELATE TO DISEASE.
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CASE CONTROL STUDY
COMPARES PEOPLE WITH A CONDITION TO A SIMILAR GROUP OF PEOPLE WITHOUT THE CONDITION
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TRANSFERABILITY
THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT IS POSSIBLE TO TRANSFER OR APPLY THE FINDINGS OF RESEARCH TO OTHER SITUATIONS
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TRUSTWORTHINESS
THE CONFIDENCE WE CAN HAVE IN THE FINDINGS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND INCLUDES FACTORS SUCH AS CREDIBILITY, REFLEXIVITY, TRIANGULATION
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PURPOSIVE SAMPLING
A METHOD OF SAMPLING IN WHICH THE RESEARCHER USES THEIR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE POPULATION OF INTEREST TO HAND-PICK RELEVANT PEOPLE TO INCLUDE IN THE SAMPLE
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REFELIVITY
RECOGNISING THAT THE RESEARCHER IS PART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND SHAPES THE PRODUCTION OF DATA THROUGH THEIR PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PAST EXPERIENCE, REQUIRING A CONSCIOUS REFLECTION ON THAT PROCESS
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THEMATIC ANALYSIS
AN ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF THE DATA TO CATEGORISE. THE RECURRENT OR COMMON TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN THE DATA, REFLECTING THE KEY ELEMENTS OF RESPONDENTS ACCOUNTS
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SATURATION
A POINT AT WHICH DATA COLLECTION CEASES AS NO NEW CONCEPTS ARE EMERGING FROM THE DATA
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NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SAMPLING IN WHICH THE RESEARCHER DOES NOT GIVE EVERYONE IN THE TARGET POPULATION A CHANCE TO BE INCLUDED BUT INSTEAD SELECTS PARTICIPANTS FOR REASONS OF CONVIENENCE ACCESS OR RELEVANCE TO THE RESEARCH
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TRIANGULATION
THE USE OF SEVERAL DIFFERENT RESEARCH METHODS TO INVESTIGATE A PHENOMENON
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CASP
TO HELP FACILITATE CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH STUDIES A SERIES OF CASP CHECKLISTS HAVE BEEN DESIGNED
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CRITICAL APPRAISAL
THE ASSESSMENT OF EVIDENCE BY SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWING ITS RELEVANCE. VALIDITY AND RESULTS TO SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
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MEASUREMENT BIAS
POORLY MEASURING THE OUTCOME YOU ARE MEASURING
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WHY DO STATISTICS MATTER
THEY HELP US TO ORGANISE,SUMMARISE AND PRESENT RAW DATA
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BRADFORD-HILL CRITERIA
KNOWN AS HILL CRITERIA FOR CAUSATION A GROUP OF CONDITIONS THAT PROVIDE EVIDENCE OF CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP (1) TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP (2) STRENGTH (3) PLAUSIBILITY (4) CONSISTENCY (5) DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP (6) SPECIFICITY (7) REVERSIBILITY
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TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP
DOES EXPOSURE PRECEDE THE OUTCOME
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STRENGTH
IS THERE A STRONG STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
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PLAUSIBILITY
DO FINDINGS REFLECT CURRENT THINKING
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CONSISTENCY
IS THE ASSOCIATION FOUND IF REPLICATED IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS USING DIFFERING METHODS
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SPECIFICITY
DOSE A SINGLE EXPOSURE RESULT IN SPECIFIC OUTCOME
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REVERSIBILITY
DOSE REMOVAL OF A PRESUMED CAUSE LEAD TO A REDUCTION IN THE RISK
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Back

INFORMATION ON HEALTH STATUS AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS IS COLLECTED FROM EACH SUBJECT AT ONE POINT IN TIME

Card 3

Front

CHANCE

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

CONFOUNDING

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

SELECTION BIAS

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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