Soul, mind and body

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What is Plato's perspective?
Dualist. The soul desires to escape the inferior body. We need to do material desires. Death is nothing to fear,as it is is shaking off of the temporary shell of the body.
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Plato and Christianity?
The soul is without beginning. The soul is eternal by nature, nothing can destroy it, because of the kind of thing it is.
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What is Plato's first argument for the existence of a soul?
The linguistic argument- the fact we use language about ourselves.
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What is Plato's second argument for the existence of a soul?
The knowledge argument-Somehow within the world of flux and change we can grasp these universals which are not affected by time and space; so there must be something within us that is equally unaffected by flux and change and has the ability to grasp
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What is Plato's third argument for the existence of a soul?
The argument of recollection- because we know the universals we must have seen them
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What is Plato's fourth argument for the existence of a soul?
The cycle of opposites- perpetual recycling of human souls from the realm of the living to the realm of the dead and back.
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What does Brian Davis' challenge Plato's ideas with?
• The Linguistic Argument only shows that I am a thing distinct from my body. Not everything has an opposite
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What is Aristotle's perspective?
The soul is not a simple, immortal substance. The body and soul are one thing. The soul gives bodily matter its form, efficiency and telos. Wax analogy. The shape is unseperable as is the body and the soul
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What is Aquinas' viewpoint?
The soul is not material and should be understood as the mind.
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What does Descartes say?
Mind is different from the body. "I think therefore I am". The pineal gland is the connection between imagination and common sense.He rejects the idea that we need to think of a supernatural soul in what it means to be human.
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What does Gilbert Ryle say?
Descartes is guilty of category error. Can be mental and physical. The Ghost in the Machine was a categorical error. There is no ghost in the machine The mind is not distinct.Is just an aspect of the way the body behaves.
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What does Richard Dawkins say?
There is no soul or consciousness as we are the sum total of our genes.
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What does Hick say?
We are our bodies, but those bodies have a spiritual dimension. There is no mind without matter.
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What is behaviourism?
The belief that all mental states are simply learned behaviours of bodies. To say I feel sad means that I am behaving sadly
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What is reductionism?
The belief that everything can be reduced to statements about physical bodies.
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What is the Hierarchy of souls?
Our souls are at the top, then to animals, then plants. - Aristotle
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What is a particular?
Exist in this world
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What is a blueprint?
The design of our soul etc.
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What does the Charioteer analogy say?
Our reason is controlled by our emotions and appetites - Plato
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What are some potential criticisms of dualist approaches?
Our experience of ourselves does not support a dualist approach. Can't explain how the mind and body work together. Distinction between mental and physical properties is not always clear-up.
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Possible criticisms of materialist approaches?
The way we use language suggests that we feel ourselves to be more than just a physical bodily. Materialism cannot explain how a chemical reaction can cause consciousness.
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Plato and Christianity?

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The soul is without beginning. The soul is eternal by nature, nothing can destroy it, because of the kind of thing it is.

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What is Plato's first argument for the existence of a soul?

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What is Plato's second argument for the existence of a soul?

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What is Plato's third argument for the existence of a soul?

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