Sociology Research Methods 5 Markers

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What is meant by the term 'Sample'?
A small group selected from a target population which aims to be representative to make generalisations. It can be costly and time consuming to study a big group of people so random sampling avoids bias. Willmot+Young used a sample of 933 people.
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What is meant by the term 'Objectivity'?
Data based on facts. E.g. The Census. Positivists prefer objective data because they can establish cause and effect. Data will be highly reliable.
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What is meant by the term 'Access'?
How you get to the target population. E.g. Parker had easy access to a gang because he looked/acted like the members. Gatekeepers make access difficult (E.g. Headteacher).
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What is meant by the term 'Focus Group'?
An interview of a group at the same time. It saves time and money. You can establish a rapport and support each other, however one person may dominate.
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What is meant by the term 'Ethnography'?
The study of people in their natural environment. The aim is to gain verstehen. Interpretivists prefer this because it is high in validity. E.g. Humphrey's Study because it wasnt in a lab.
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What is meant by the term 'Longitudinal Study'?
Study over a long period of time with regular intervals. They are more than a snapshot but could be sample attrition. E.g. 7Up - Qualitative - Interpretivists.
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What is meant by the term 'Participant Obversvation'?
When the researcher gets invovled in the study. It's an example of ethnographic research - gain in verstehen - valid. Interpretivists prefer P.O because they can get meanings nd motives. E.g. Venketesh and Humphreys.
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What is meant by the term 'Representative Sample'?
Your sample is typical of your target population. E.g. Wilmott+Young's 933 sample. If the sample is representative, generalisations can be made. Positivists prefer this as it is quantitative - social facts.
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What is meant by the term 'Qualitative Data'?
Data in the form of words. Prefered by Interpretavists because it's on a micro scale - meanings and motives. Difficult to analyse. E.g. Unstructured Interviews.
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What is meant by the term 'Survey'?
A way of collecting information out of a large number of people. E.g. Closed Questionnaires/Structured interviews. Positivists - Quantative - Graphs - Reliable - Macro. E.g. The Census and Wilmott and Young.
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What is meant by the term 'Official Statistics'?
Quantative, secondary data. It's widely avaliable and cheap. E.g. The Crime Stats and The Census. Positivists prefer this ecause they can find social facts - reliable - representative.
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Card 2

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What is meant by the term 'Objectivity'?

Back

Data based on facts. E.g. The Census. Positivists prefer objective data because they can establish cause and effect. Data will be highly reliable.

Card 3

Front

What is meant by the term 'Access'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is meant by the term 'Focus Group'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by the term 'Ethnography'?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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