Sociology Crime and Deviance

Deviance
Actions which break social norms
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Laws
Formal rules made by the governmnent
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Crime
Actions which are against the law
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Social construction of crime and deviance
Is the way that what is seen as criminal or deviant varies from time to time and place to place
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Social order
How society is kept under control
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Communities
Groups of people living in a neighbourhood or a group of people with shared interests
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Informal social control
The first way of making people behave before official agencies take ober eg: family, peers, school
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Close-knit communities
Communities that have strong links
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Big Brother
An idea from the book 1984 by George Orwell that there will be a time when everyone is watched very closely by technology
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CCTV
Closed circuit televison cameras which film the public to help prevent crime and catch criminals
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Surveillance
Means watching people to check what they are doing
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Public relations
Is about how the police get on with the community
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Community policing
Is about the police working with local people
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Zero Tolerance
Is when the police are really strict about the smallest crimes to stop bigger ones happening
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Judiciary
All the legal organisations that enforce the law
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Magistrates' court
Where less serious cases are dealt with
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Crown court
Where the most serious cases are tried by a jury
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Media
Are the ways that people have of communicating with large groups of people
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Moral panics
Are when the media exaggerates an issue and makes the public worry about it
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Youth culture
Are groups of young people with their own set of norms and values
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Folk devils
Are groups that the media make people afraid of
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Deviancy amplification
Is when the media makes a problem worse by the way they report it
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White collar crime
Crimes that are committed by the middle classes, usually linked to their jobs
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Fraud
Is when money is gained by telling lies or giving false information
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Bribery
Is when people are given money in return for breaking the rules when they are in a postion of trust
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Insider trading
An illegal practice when people working for a company use their insider knowledge to make money on stocks and shares
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Embezzlement
Workers taking money without people affected realising
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Blue collar crime
Crimes that are committed by the working classes
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Occupational crime
Is a crime that is connected to your job
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Corporate crimes
Crimes that are committed by big businesses
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Employees
People who work for a company
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Negligence
Is when a company doesn't keep the public or its workers safe through a lack of care
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Manslaughter
When a person is killed unlawfully because of a lack of care
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Youth crime
Means crime committed by 10-17 year olds
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Delinquency
Means anti-social behaviour by young people
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Street crime
Refers to crime committed in public places
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Anti-social behaviour
Means behaviour that breaks social norms and is a nuisance to other people
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Chav
A stereotype of working- class youths who behave in a loud anti-social way
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Feral youth
Young people that are not socialised
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Youth offenders
Young people who break the law
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Non-sociological theories of crime
Ideas about why people become criminals based on psychology and science
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Bipolar disorder
A mental disorder that can make people very active or depressed
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Genes
The basic unit of DNA that decides what your physical characteristics are
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Psychological
Ideas about how the mind works
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Labelling
The view that people are influenced by the words other people use to describe us
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
The idea that the labels people are given will turn out to be true
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Deviant career
The path that a person labelled a criminal follows
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Subculture
The way of life of a small group within a society
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Strain theory
The idea that the pressure to succeed encourages people to turn to crime
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Territorial identities
When the area you live in is really important to who you are
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Gangs
Organised groups of people who join together for profit or to defend territory
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Postcode violence
Where gangs from different postal areas fight each other
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Cultural deprivation
Is when individuals lack the basic necessites for a reasonable lifestyle
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Conviction rates
Are about how many people from certain social groups are charged and found guilty of crimes
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Self report studies
Are when people are asked to say whether they have committed crimes in a questionnaire
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Victimisation
Is about who the victims of crime are
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Norms of masculinity
Traditional ideas about how men should act including being tough and strong
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Ladette culture
A set of norms which encourages some girls to behave like men
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Chivalry factor
Is the way that women are treated more favourably by police and courts
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Demonisation of women
Is the way that women who commit certain crimes, which go against the caring nature of females, are presented as evil by the media
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Ethnic minorities
Cultural groups that are small in number compared with the whole population
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Immigration
People moving to Britain from other countries
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Sentence
The punishment given by the court
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Sentence
The punishment given by the court
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Formal rules made by the governmnent

Back

Laws

Card 3

Front

Actions which are against the law

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Is the way that what is seen as criminal or deviant varies from time to time and place to place

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

How society is kept under control

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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