Sociology

Crime
Illegal acts which break the law.
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Deviance
Behaviour that does not conform to societies' norms.
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Social Order
Society being kept stable and harmonious.
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Functionalism
Maintained through agreement on values, norms and rules.
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Marxism
Maintained through the bourgeoisie controlling the proletriat.
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Formal Social Control
How laws, written rules and formal agencies of social control control people's behaviour.
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Informal Social Control
How unwritten rules and processes control people's behaviour.
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Formal Agencies of Scoial Control
Police, Housse of Parliament, Courts and Judges, Prison Service, Probation Service
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Informal Agencies of Social Control
Family, Friends, Religion, Colleagues
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Sanctions
Rewards and punidhments for people's behavuiour.
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Functionalist Perspective on Crime
Crime is natural and positive. Furthermore, crime reinforces the boundaries of what is right and what is wrong.
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Anomie
When the norms that controls an individual's behaviour break down.
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Delinquency
Minor crime and deviance, usually committed by young people.
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Merton's Strain Theory (1955)
People's aspirations were shaperd by their culture and people experience strain and anomie when they lack the opprtunitieds to complete their goals.
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Cohen's Subcultural Theory (1955)
Delinquent subcultures were formed when working class boys could meet the same expectation as middle class students. They ex`perienced status frustration and created their own illegal ways to get status and success within their subculture.
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Marxist Perspective on Crime
Capitalism causes crime. Capitalism causes greed, materialism and competition and as the working class can't afford the products of capitalism, they are more likely to turn to crime.
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Marxist Views of Law Enforcement
Laws were made to protect the ruling class and agencies of social control work in the favoutr of the ruling class. Ethnic minorities and working class individuals are more likely to be targetted by police.
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Chivalry Thesis
Women are treated more harshly in the criminal justice system aas they have broken the law and broken the ideas of femininity.
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Heidensohn's Control Theory (1985)
Women are conttrolled by the patriarchal nature of society making it hardfer for them to commit crime. At home, time is taken up with housework and childcare whist in public, women's behaviour is controlled by the fear of male violence.
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Feminist Perspective on Crime
How and why women are victimised by society and how females are treated in the criminal justice system.
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Interactiionist Perspective on Crime
Focuses on individuals labelled in society and the impact reactions to crime have on criminals.
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Social Construction of Crime and Deviance
Becker argues deviance s created by society labellind certain people and acts whilst siome groups have the power to apply labels and create social rules.
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Deviant Career
Process by which someone comes to see themselves as deviant.
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Master Status
When status becomes someone's main identity.
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Becker's Labelling Theory (1963)
The belief that people act upon their labels therefore, their label becomes their master status and the self fulfilling prophecy occurs.
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Social Class and Crime Patterns
Working class people are over represented in prisons and the upper class appears to commit less crime in crime statistics.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Behaviour that does not conform to societies' norms.

Back

Deviance

Card 3

Front

Society being kept stable and harmonious.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Maintained through agreement on values, norms and rules.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Maintained through the bourgeoisie controlling the proletriat.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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