Sociology and Science

Different philosophies of science
Logical positivists, Popper (1959;1963), + Kuhn (1962)
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Different philosophies of science - Logical positivists believe that scientists go odd in search of scientific laws
Researcher observes, decides it needs to be explained. Thinks hypothesis to explain. Tests hypothesis. If results agree w/ hypothesis, scientific law, which is universal
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Different philosophies of science - Popper (1959;1963) argued that experiments should be falsified
Try and prove hypothesis wrong - contradict it. Swan analogy. Believed wasn't possible to know the absolute truth, as can't prove things are correct. Believed sociology was a science but only if it could be falsified
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Criticisms of Popper
Experimental design can disagree w/ hypothesis due to experimental error etc. If proven wrong, usually a mistake in chemistry
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Different philosophies of science - Kuhn (1963) disagreed w/ both logistical positivists + Popper
Thought scientists took assumptions about world for granted - paradigm. What scientists do constrained by paradigm. Big leaps in science come when evidence not fitting paradigm can't be ignored. New paradigm created - scientific revolution
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Disagreement about whether sociology is a science
Popper some sociological concepts not scientific as cannot be falsified. Kuhn argues sociology doesn't have a paradigm - no consensus as to what it's about and how it's done therefore not a science
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Researcher observes, decides it needs to be explained. Thinks hypothesis to explain. Tests hypothesis. If results agree w/ hypothesis, scientific law, which is universal

Back

Different philosophies of science - Logical positivists believe that scientists go odd in search of scientific laws

Card 3

Front

Try and prove hypothesis wrong - contradict it. Swan analogy. Believed wasn't possible to know the absolute truth, as can't prove things are correct. Believed sociology was a science but only if it could be falsified

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Experimental design can disagree w/ hypothesis due to experimental error etc. If proven wrong, usually a mistake in chemistry

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Thought scientists took assumptions about world for granted - paradigm. What scientists do constrained by paradigm. Big leaps in science come when evidence not fitting paradigm can't be ignored. New paradigm created - scientific revolution

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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