Social Policy-LT7

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 29-03-15 11:21
Currently in China, what is the main family policy in action?
The One child policy
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Why was the one child policy introduced?
To control the population growth,
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What does the one child policy do?
It discourages couples from having more than one child
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What is the process if a couple wants a child?
Women have to seek permission by workkplace family committees to try to become pregnant and are put on a waiting list,
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How benefits do couples recieve if they have only one child?
-Free child care, -Higher tax allowance, -Priority in educatiion and housing,
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What happens if couples break this agreement?
They have to repay allowances and recieve a fine,
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What are women pressured to do after their first child?
Undergo sterilisation,
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In the 1980s, what kind of country was Romania?
Post-Communist
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What was post-communist Romania's main family aim?
To increase the birth rate,
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What happened to contraception and abortion?
They were restricted,
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What centres were set up?
Infertility treatment centres,
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What happened to divorce?
Made more difficult,
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What did they do to the legal age of marriage?
It was lowered to 15,
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What tax was introduced for who?
Unmarried adults and childless couples paid 5% more income tax,
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In 1930s Nazi Germany, what was the Nazi's aim for a German race?
They aimed for a healthy and 'racially pure' Aryan race by encouraging to breed a master race,
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What happened to abortion and contraception?
They were restricted,
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Where were women encouraged to stay?
In the home and were kept out of the workplace,
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Who was compulsory sterilised and how many?
375,000 disabled people were stabilised,
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For family policy in the UK, describe the pensions introduced for the elderly and the effect on the younger generations?
State pensions-This means that younger generations are freer of financial obligations to their aged parents,
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Describe the divorce laws introduced and the effect on the family?
Divorce laws- More liberal laws may give women freedom to leave unhappy relationships,
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Describe the labour laws and the effect on the family?
They prevent children from working and increase their dependence on parents,
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Describe schooling and the effect on the family?
Raised school leaving age means the young are dependent on parents of longer,
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Describe how the availability of contraception and abortion affects family life?
It give women greater control over their bodies and shapes family sizes,
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Describe the care in the community?
Family members rather than nursing homes have to care for the sick and elderly,
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Describe domestic and child abuse laws and the effect on the family?
They give police powers to remove violent members for the home and place children in care-Destroys family life,
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How would you describe functionalist views in general?
-Consensus, -Rose tinted, -March of Progress view,
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Why do Functionalists view social policies positively?
as they help families to perform their functions more effectively, benefiting individual members and society as a whole,
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What does what functionalist sociologist state about the welfare system?
Fletcher-That the creation of the welfare state such as health care, housing and education helps the family to perform its functions more effectively. e.g.looking afer family members alongside the NHS
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What is an evaluation point about the functionalist views on social policies?
It assumes a march of progress with social policies, making family life gradually better- Sometimes benefits are cut to poor families and mainly benefits men,
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How would you describe the New Rights view in general?
A political view,
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What do they believe about Government intervention?
It should be as limited as possible,
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When do they favour social polices and why?
They favour social policies which support the self reliant nucleur family as it is capable of caring for its own members,
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Why do they criticise laws such as making divorce easier?
AS it undermines the traditional family structure,
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What is what sociologists view about the Welfare system?
Murray argues the welfare system creates dependency,
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WHat is Murrays view on council housing for unmarried teenage mothers?
That it encourages teenage girls to get pregnant
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What is Murrays view about welfare benefits to families, especially lone parent?
He believes they are too generous and ecourages some fathers to abandon their finanical responsibilities towards their families,
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What is the term used to describe the father abandoning their families?
Man-deserts,
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What does he claim about the growth of lone parent families and their negative effects?
He argues it is due to the generous benefits and means boys grow up without a male role model and authority figure- This explains increase in juvenile male crime,
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What does Murray advocate for welfare spending?
Tighter restrcitions should be placed on those that are eligible.
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What agency is he supportive of and what is its aim?
The Child Support Agency whose role is to make absent fathers financially responsible for their children,
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What does he policies does he encourage and an example?
He encourages polices supporting the nucleur family e.g. tax breaks for low income families rather than cohabiting couples,
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What is an evaluation of the New Right's view?
It ignores the negative consequences of welfare cuts-can push families into more poverty and drive up crime levels,
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How would you describe New Labour's view in general?
A political view,
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What is New Labour's views on social policies?
That they can improve the lives of families,
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What families do New Labour support and why?
Like the New Right, they believe traditional families which believe children are best brought up where parents are married,
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Who do they want to cut benefits from?
Lone parents
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However, New Labour have introduced policies that are at odds with the New Right thinking and notion of the nucleur family. What are these three policies?
1)Adoption Right to unmarried cohabiting couples, 2)Lifting children out of poverty through re-distributing income from the rich to poor, 3)Sure Start
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What types of families do unmarried cohabiting couples help give legitimacy to what family forms?
Helps give legitimacy to family forms such as same sex couples
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How is income re-distributed income from the rich to the poor?
Taxation, benefirs and minimum wage polices
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What is Sure Starts aim?
Offers health and support services for low income families with young children,
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What is an evaluation point on New Labour?
New Labour was not a complete success- Significant numbers of children remain in poverty and Sure Start was no adequatley funded,
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How would you describe the feminists view in general?
Gender conflict view
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How do feminists view social policies and why?
Negatively-They believe social policies reinforce the patriarchal nucleur family. Alternatives to the nucleur family are discourages and women are oppressed and controlled,
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What evidence is there that social policies towards marriage reinforce patriarchal nucleur families
Government offers incentives to married couples and discourages cohabitation
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What evidence is there that social policies towards wives claiming social security benefits reinforce patriarchal nucleur families?
The Goverment make it impossible for women to claim social security benefits in their own right as they assume husbands are the breadwinner and wives are financially dependent, makign wives depndent on their husbands,
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What evidence is there that social polices towards child custody reinforces patriarchy?
Courts tend to give custody of children in divorce cases to the female partner as they assume they are more 'natural carers'
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What sociologist argued what about social policies towards women?
Leonard highlighted that some policies appear to benefit women but actually reinforce patriarchy in the family,
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Give two examples of policies that appear ti benefit women but actually reinforce patriarchy?
-Maternity leave policies, -Child benefit,
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How do maternity leave policies reinforce patriarchy?
As matenrity pay and leave is much more generous than paternity leave. This reinforces the idea that women should be the main carers of children,
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How do child benefit policies reinforce patriarchy?
As child benefits are paid to women and although this gives women a source of income dependent of men, it reinforces the notion that the mother is responsible for the welfare of the child,
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What did which sociologist argue reinforced gender regimes?
-Drew argues the extent to which social policies in different countries shape gender equality in the family and workplace,
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What did Drew argue was familistic gender regimes?
-The assumption that the man is the breadwinner and the woman is the homemaker,
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What is an example of where this is evident though social policies?
Greece where there are few benefits for childcare. Women have to gain support from kin and the traditonal domestic division of labour,
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What did Drew argue was individualistic gender regimes?
The assumption men and women should be treated equally,
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What is an exampel of where this is evident through social policies?
In Sweden where there are equal opportunity policies, state provision of childcare, parental leave, good welfare means women are less dependent on their husbands and have an equal chance to work,
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What is an evaluation point on feminist views of social policies?
Not all social polices are directed at reinforcing patriarchy e.g. equal pay and sex discrimination laws, benefits for lone parents, domestic violence refuges, equal right for divorce etc,
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How would you describe the Marxist view in general?
Class conflict view,
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How do Marxists view social policies and why?
They see it negatively as they believe it benefits the ruling class and capitalism,
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How is social policies shown to benefit the ruling class and capitalism through state pensions?
They are paid at a low level as once workers are too old to make profits, they are 'maintained' at the lowest possible cost,
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How is social policies shown to benefit the ruling class and capitalism through the welfare system?
The welfare system doesnt serve the interest of the working class but serves to stem off alienation and social unrest by 'buying' off poor working class families with benefits, free education, health care etc.
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How is social policies shown to benefit the ruling class and capitalism through benefits and health care?
They are frequently cut for the working class, meaning family life can be a struggle,
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What is an evaluation point for Marxist views on social policies?
it offers a conspiracy theory- It assumes social policy is set up to benefit the ruling class. this underplays how much social policies help working class family life,
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What is the surveillance theory view in general?
Postmodernist conflict view,
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What sociologist supports this theory and hwo does he view social policies?
Donzelot- He sees social policies as a form of power and social control over individduals,
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How does Donzelor view professionals such as social workers and their effect on family life?
He believes professionals 'police' families and place them under surveillance as they use thei power and knowledge to observe, monitor, control and change families, particularily poorer families
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What is an evaluation point on the surveillance theory?
it fails to explain who benefits from the power and control carried out by the 'caring professionals'. Marxists would claim they serve the ruling class, feminists would say men,
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What is the conclusion for social policies?
Social policies have a major impact on family strucutres, roles and relationships. In this way, the family is socially constructed, a product of government policy decision making, which leads to significant variations in family life over time,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why was the one child policy introduced?

Back

To control the population growth,

Card 3

Front

What does the one child policy do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the process if a couple wants a child?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How benefits do couples recieve if they have only one child?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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