Social developments 1917-85

  • Created by: tgrev
  • Created on: 03-05-17 17:09
What was work and benefits like under Lenin
1918 declaration of the rights of toiling and exploited people introduced two main principles for work, abolished private property so ownership doesnt = cash, universal labour duty so all worked "eliminated parasitical layers of society"
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Why was ensuring stable employment difficult
Revolutions of 1917 and 1918 had cause econ chaos, 570 industrial enterprises closed, unemployment at 100,000, war prod ceased after Brest Litovsk-> higher unemployment (75% of chem workers unemployed in petrograd). Len stressed importance of discipl
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What was work and benefits like under Lenin 1918-21
Widespread unemployment ended with compulsory labour, sept 1918 men aged 16-50 forced to work. Rations allocated according to occupation, previous bourgeois had 25% of the workers rations, communal dining halls set up, allowed to use public transport
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How was compulsory work unsuccessful
Unsustainable by the civ war conditions, July 1920 factories closed due to fuel shortage. War comm never provided more then 50% of food, great reliance on black market, petrograd population dropped by 50% due to food search
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Why did Unemployment surface in 1920
1921+Soldiers from red army demobilised and found it hard to get work, Urban workers who left cities found it difficult to find new jobs when returning, end of war comm, govt sacked 250,000 admins, encouraged to increase productivity in 1926
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What benefits were set up for urban workers
1922 Labour law gave unions the right to negotiate binding agreements about pay and work with employers, social insurance paid disability benefits, maternal benefits etc, the govt invested in education for workers and their families
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What methods of war communism were revived under Stalin
Lateness criminalised, Unions lost the right to negotiate with managers, Strikes were banned, Damaging factory property was criminalised
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What did Stalin introduce to maximise production
His disregard for safety was evidence in speedy construction, dangerous conditions were worked in to meet quotas, continuous work week let factories and mines be open for an extra day on alternating weeks
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How did the FYP lead to improved benefits
Workers were entitled to food rations, by 33 most had access to electricity, Factory and farm canteens provided meals, increase in healthcare provision mass vacc on typhoid etc
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What evidence of better conditions is there from 45-53
Infant mortality declined by 50%, number of medical doctors increased by 2/3's, vaccines for common diseases universally available
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How was health still poor for the soviet people
Planned econ didnt produce soap, warm clothing, shoes, canteens used rotten food/unfit for consumption->illness, inadequate sanitation, hygiene education
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How was housing redistributed from 1918-28
Initially violently after decree of land, in civ war houses fled so used for fuel, redistribution of property initially outlwaed, after lenin's death attempts to redistribute, large town house "socialised", church prop privatised
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What was Kommunulka
Division of buildings into small communal buildings, 5.5 square metres per family, scarce bath houses, sewerage not invested, modernisation low priority
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What were factory towns like under Stalin
Magnitogorsk, accommodation often inferior to Kommunalka, several fams in barracks, no running water or elec, poor sanitation and living conditions led to lice and disease
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What was housing like from 1941-53
WW2 made the situation worse due to destruction, conditions were poor, scarce furniture, scheme to encourage self built homes failed, small budgets and inefficient management, housing on collective farms was prioritised 45-50 4500 farming villages
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What was health and wellfare like under K
Increased investment 21.4 bill roubles-44 in 1959. Death rate decreased by 2.4% by thousand people from 50-65, infant mortality rate 81-27% from 50-65, pensions budget quadrupled.
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What major reforms 1961 introduced
Free lunches, offices and factories, free public transport, full pensions and healthcare rights for farmers
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what was housing like under K
Ordered a halt to new govt and communal buildings, secondly invested in new materials and techniques to solve problem of housing, cheap housing necessary until 1980, Khrushchyovka became standard issue, continued through to the 80's
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What did the govt promise with the social contract
Job security thru 100% employment, low prices for essentials, thriving second economy free of intervention, social benefits, some social mobility
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How was the social contract a success
Increased standards pf living, social benefits subsidised rent and utilities such as elec/water practically free, spending on healthcare + by 4-5%, lack of opposition to the govt
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How did the social contract lead to stagnation
Full employment led to 20% being paid for useless jobs, serious labour shortages late 70's 1mill vacancies in industry not filled, female unemployment due to traditional gender stereotypes, 2% of russians out of work by 1985, infant mortality + 4%
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How did women play a supportive role in propaganda from 1917-40
Worker and Kolkhoz women, male = industry, female = the whole nation, soviet govt believed me played a primary role as they were depicted as industrial workers, women often repd motherhood/maternal role.
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Which film mocked females fighting agaisnt the bolsheviks
October by Eisentein
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How were women portrayed from 1941-64
"The motherland is calling" poster repd women as the symbol of russia and celebrated their work in WW2, women still presented as weak/vulnerable, Tanya symbol of weakness, soldiers defended women/motherland. First women in space Tereshkova=Hero
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How were women portrayed from 1964-85
Brezhnev portrayed a more traditional view, propaganda in the late 60/early 70 emphasised women should be exemplary worker and caring wife. Falling birth rates led to pro-natal campaign which emphasised "natural difference" between sexes,
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What was work in towns like for women lenin and stalin
Lenin: civ war recruited to fill jobs in nursing and food distribution, after civ war women in industry sacked for men Stalin: Women joined ind due to FYP demands +10 mill by 1940, paid less 60% of men K: 45% of ind work to women, yet only light ind
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WHat was work in towns life for women K and Brez
K: 45% of ind work to women, yet only light ind low skilled and low skilled manual labour, paid less for easier work then men B: 74% employed in clerical positions were women, 90% of able bodied who didn't work outside the home were women
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What was Bam recruitment
Baikal-Amur Mainline, campaign to recruit women no kids and mid 20's as company for males constructing, stated finding men would be ez as more men then women, many Bamkovas did important work, others were waitress
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How were female workers educated
By 1960's half of graduates were women, by 1985, 70% of medical doctors were women, 65% of workers in art were women, yet pay scales in these areas was lower then the male dominated factories
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How were women employed in the virgin land scheme
Women used to entice volunteers in, roles such as milk-maid, gardener or starting a family, the govt wanted young women under 25 to entice men in, subjected to sexual abuse and ****, lowest paid and most demanding jobs, men had priority in machines
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How were women employed in farming in the 70s and 80s
Continued the low work, low status jobs, women over repd in lowest paid jobs as men left farms for factories, 80% of teachers in rural areas were women, only 2% of farm managers women
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How did women fight for the motherland in ww2
Many women who enlisted were turned away, but by 1945 800,000 had served in combat roles, accomplished women pilots in the nightwitches, rare sexual abuse and **** lots of respect, yet at the end of the war women demobilised
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How did the role of women as party members different
L:Civ war women in social welfare/education/employment, stagnated participation S:Expected to play homemaking roles K/B:Women in political work health/social services/education, women soviets + by 5%, many joined after 1953, + by 6.3%
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How did Zhenotdel advance woman's rights
Education:establised reading rooms, education in factories 28% of uni were women by 1930 LegalRights: 1919 women givign equal pay right, voting rights Marital Rights: Postcard divorce 1926 it was legal to end marriage with postcard
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How was Zhenotdel inefficient
Equal political rights meaningless as democracy abolished in 1921, men could get women pregnant and leave with postcard div, unwilling to help those affected by sexual abuse
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Which legal changes were introduced under stalin (1936) that were more conservative
Abortion criminalised unless life of lady in danger, Contraception banned, male homosexuality criminalised, lesbianism=disease, sexual abstinence enforced with local virginity checks, financial incentives for women to have more children7+kids=2000p5y
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What was women and the family like under K
Women's rights reemphasised under K following S death, many national women magazines e.g Woman Worker exposed the inequality for women, abortion legalised 1955, state paid maternatiy leave to 112 days 1956, 7YP aimed to eliminate double shift
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What was women like under B
Stressed centrality of family/tradition, govt proclaimed parity had been achieved, lack of women in senior jobs, strict sexual morality, women did twice the chores of men, pension age lowered to 55 from 60 for women
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What were the early goals for education
High literacy essential for socialism as marxism = complex to peasants, Lunacharsky believed education should allow women to flourish
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What were the problems of education
Disagreement over nature of education with rev purposes: Should trad ed be continued? Should the trained elite be worked with? How should the masses be educated?. Low levels of literacy 32% in 1914, urban ed better then rural
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What reforms did the govt introduce in 1918
Unified labour schools provided free ed from 8-17, banned religious instruction, introduced co-educational schools ending gender segregation, abolished corporal punishment, homework and exams
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How did ed fall short of Lunacharsky's vision of progressive learning
Civil war mean there was insufficient resources to invest in education, free compulsory education until 16 was not accomplished by 1950s, no resources for meals or check ups
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What was education like under the NEP
Some schools closed to save money, introduced fees to pay for primary and secondary ed for all except the poorest and disabled, scrapped plans for opening orphanages
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How was education expanded in the mid 20's
Expansion occurred with economic stability, 1927 primary school fees abolished, most received 4 year education, urban ed more accessible then rural. In secondary, elite dominated as pay to get in 97% paid, 90% started 25% finished (elite) 40% 3%fin w
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How was the red army educated
Literacy rates increased to 86% in 1921, as of 1925 100% of red army literate
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How was literacy impacted by the civil war
Outside the red army there was a decline, more could identify the alphabet due to increased publishing 6.5 mil books, but not genuine literacy, Luna introduced reading rooms, yet education was not priority in civ war/ survival was. Majority of teach
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Which 3 ways was literacy set back
Majority of teachers rejected the regime -> strike, govt prioritised military success and econ survival, many schools requisitioned by the army, war econ didnt prod educational products, war disrupted ed
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What was literacy like in the Nep
To save money the govt closed 90% of reading rooms. May 1925 govt introduced campaign to eradicate adult illiteracy by October 1927. Metal Works Union increased literacy from 86-96%, educating peasants difficult so goal pushed back to 1933. 38-55%
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What was Stalin's war on illiteracy
govt recruited 3 mill komosol to educate peasants, military approach "cultural soldiers", teachers were enemy of the govt as collectivisation, 40% attacked in 1st year, teachers poorly equipped. 1st fyp of adults had 90% lit course, by 39 94% adltlit
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Why was curriculum reform introduced
Abolished polytechnic focus, reading writing maths essential for socialism, aim=all had basic level, progressive methods abandoned, teachers set regular hmwk students must be ontime, school discipline prep for labour discipline
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How were citizens educated under Stalin
New focus on Russian history, focus on Ivan the terrible and peter the great, stressed importance of russian hist, emerged same time as cult of perso
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How was educational expansion approached under Stalin
95% of kids for primary school by 1932, fees to fund industrialisation, govt wont spend more then necessary on ed, limited access, higher ed grew, unis + by 800%, 2nd ed increased to 1.5 mill
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What were labour reserve schools
Train young men between 14-17 in industry, industrial conscription, provided with food yet no pay, men could avoid military service through the scheme, harsh conditions, provided labour skill for 4/5 FYP
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What was Uni like under Stalin
Stalin wanted to replace bourgeoisie specialists, so uni enrollment 170,000 in 1927, 500,000 in 1932, 812,000 in 1940. WW2 decimated uni, by 1944 only 227,000 remained in Uni, 53 Uni reconstructed 1. 5mill students
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How did K expand education
Merged small country schools into ones that would offer the full 10 years of education. Doubled no of schools in towns and cities, teachers increased from 1.5 in 53 to 2.2 in 64. Fees abolished-> proportion of 17 yrs who finished increased by 20%
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How was education reformed in 1956
Reintroduction of polytechnic, k's workforce needed sophisticated skills for consumer goods and shortage of skilled workers due to the war, education more practical humanities -10% on curriculum, practical training +20
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What were the 1958 reforms
Compulsory education for 7-15, school had to offer 11 yr programs, restructured ed so it would be completed through vocational and ed for 16-19yr olds
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What were K's final ed reforms
Relax of Stalin discipline Nov 1960 - abolished rules on posture, New emphasis on learning foreign languages, requirements to set hmwk dropped, teachers lost the right to expel the underachieving
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What was the impact of K's reforms
Unpopular as most parents wanted their kids to have a academic education, slackening of discipline ignored by teachers, yet education for the academic elite
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How did B repeal the K reforms
ended the 11yr school system, to 8 yr, then 10, drew a temp curriculum to restore academic ed, ended vocational training for 16-19, anadoned compulsory 2nd ed
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How did B slow expansion
Number of teachers remained stable, , by 1976 only 60% completed, continual increase in teacher qualification
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What small scale reforms did B introduce
The School Statute of September 1970 required text books to remain up to date, The fundamental law on soviet ed consolidated the approach to ed in a single document
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What was Uni like under K and B
Student numbers grew from 1.5 mill to over 5 mill, new courses on construction, agricultural chemistry etc, academic staff increased from 87k to 380k, New unis built in republics, post grad ed grew to 32k with doctorates in 1975
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Card 2

Front

Why was ensuring stable employment difficult

Back

Revolutions of 1917 and 1918 had cause econ chaos, 570 industrial enterprises closed, unemployment at 100,000, war prod ceased after Brest Litovsk-> higher unemployment (75% of chem workers unemployed in petrograd). Len stressed importance of discipl

Card 3

Front

What was work and benefits like under Lenin 1918-21

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How was compulsory work unsuccessful

Back

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Card 5

Front

Why did Unemployment surface in 1920

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