- Created by: HarryAustin
- Created on: 03-05-18 10:11
State control of Mass Media & Propaganda
- Lenin and the Press: The Decree of Press 1917, gave govt power to close any newspapers that were counter-revolutionary
- Revolutionary tribunal of the Press 1918- State powers to censor press.
- All-Russian Telegraph Agency (ROSTA) 1918- State control of all advertising and reporting
- Glavlit 1922- employed professionals to censor all books for anti-communist ideas
- Propaganda under Lenin: Gustav Klutis, Photomontage to advertise Electrification campaign.
- El Lissitzky, 'Beat the whites with the red wedge'. Abstract art
- Rosta produced film to support media
- Stalin's Media:
- Censorship tightened, work of opponents banned
- From 1928 Glavlit controlled access to economic data.
- Press was forbidden to publish 'bad news'
- Cult of Stalin, semi-divine figure, unique visions
- Propaganda focused on idealised images to promote socialism.
Mass Media K & Brezhnev
- Khrushchev encouraged publishing of readers' letter.
- Exposed profound social issues (alcoholism, inequalities, abuse etc.)
- Satirical cartoons allowed, Krokodil poked fun at alcoholism and lateness
- Censorship relaxed during Khrushchev's Thaws (1953-64)
Media Under Brezhnev:
- Focused on the victory of WW2
- Focused on contemporary Russia
- Stocked public desire for Consumer goods and fashion
- Rich Russians exposed to western magazines
- The Cult of Lenin: 1918, Lenin's image used as a revolutionary symbol
- Saintly, willing to suffer for his people
- Didn't like the cult but recognised importance
- The Cult of Stalin: Emphasised legitimacy of Stalin (Lenin's heir)
- Manipulation of history, Stalin fought the revolution with Lenin
- Photos edited since early 1930's
- Presented as 'Vozhd', leader with ultimate authority
- From 1941, presented as Generalissimo (a military leader)
- The Cult of Khrushchev: Criticised Stalin's cult
- Images of Stalin dropped 1955-64 (continued to use cult of Lenin)
- K developed own cult; A disciple of Lenin
- Responsible for new successes, a hero of WW2, Great reformer of Soviet system
- undermined by media.
- Brezhnev; Lenin cult persisted,
- A great Leninist, Military hero, dedicated to world peace, true man of people
- Counterproductive, Cult led to ridicule and mockery
Attacks on religious Beliefs & Practises
- 1917 Land Decree allowed seizing of Church Land
- 1918 Decree Concerning Separation of Church and State, took away traditional privileges of Orthodox Church
- Cheka terrorised church, Orthodox priests massacred Jan 1918,
- 1921, Introduced Living Church, alternative to Orthodox but never took off
- Lenin attacked Muslim institutions, threatened by loyalty
- Under Stalin: Churches closed, used as grain storage
- Used NKVD to destroy Islamic groups, e.g. Sufi Groups in Turkestan 1936
- War compromise, pragmatic alliance with church, 414 churches reopened
- Ending of religious censorship, over 2,600 more priests 1946-48
- Under K: Religion had no place, Anti-religious campaign 1958
- Closure of re-opened churches, 8000 to 5000 buildings 1958-64
- Anti-religious propaganda,
- Under Brezhnev: Ended anti-religion campaign. Supported anti-American Islamic group
- Established Spiritual Board of Muslims, allowed Islamic leaders access to others.
Attacks on Opponents of the Government
- Lenin introduced Cheka 1917, (Dzerzhinsky) to target counter-revolutionaries.
- Broad definition, supporter of tsars, socialists, trade unionists.
- Before 1921: requisitioned grain, torture/ execution of opponents
- During NEP: Class enemies (rich traders, Western clothed women, Westernised youth)
- Political trials, trial of socialist revolutionary leaders.
- Stalin: NKVD Used against party instead
- Yagoda: 1934, treated soviet leaders w/ respect, slow purging. Turning point as used on CP
- Trial of 16, Zinoviev & allies 1936
- Yezhov, 1936-38, The Great Terror, Yezhovschina. 1.5mil arrested 10% population 635k deported, 680k executed
- Trial of 17, Trotsky and supporters 1937
- Beria: Mass execution and deportation, 1944 460k Chechens deported.
- Leningrad Affair 1949, 200 members of party arrested.
- Trial of 21, Bukharim and allies including Yagoda 1938.
- First atomic bomb 1949.
Dissidents and Popular Discontent 1967-85
K's de-Stalinisation reduced the use of terror, Brezhnev concerned of controlling opponents but no return of mass terror.
- Andropov's suppression of dissidents, 1967-82: Suspicious of K's liberalisation, preferred targetting of specific individuals, who refused to reform (dissidents)
- Allowed 100k artists to leave the USSR
- Repressive Psychiatry, sent opponents to asylums
- Sakharov & Solzhenitsyn biggest dissidents, bother forced to exile, immune due to support
- Helsinki Agreement 1975: used by dissidents to embarrass govt (HR agreement)
- 1982-85 popular discontent: loss of faith in the system due to:
- Alcoholism, disincentives, demand for western goods, poor labour discipline
- Dealing with discontent: Anti-corruption, investigated senior officials
- Anti-alcohol campaign, workers sacked for drunkenness
- Operation Trawl, anti-drunkenness and anti-absenteeism campaign
- Unable to sustain campaigns due to health
The State and Cultural Change 1917-53
- Established Prolekult (1917-29) to nurture the Proletarian form of Art. 1920 300 studios set up.
- Lenin was critical as it wasn't universal. October 1920 Prolekult lots its independence.
- The Avant-garde 1917-29: Revolutionary art, geometric shapes to create new forms of art
- Graphic posters during the civil war
- Alexander Rodchenko, photomontage celebrating revolution
- Socialist Realism 1930-53. Stalin argued art should use traditional techniques
- Realistic Art
- Novels had to follow ordinary plots Fyodor Gladkov's 1924 'Cement' novel
- Focus on building socialism
- Lenin and Stalin painted as revolutionary symbols
Transformed from free and independent to govt dominated and highly conservative.
The State and Cultural Change 1950s-1985
- Thaws & Nonconformity, 1954-64
- 1953-4, publications that criticised Stalin's terror allowed
- 1956-7, following Secret Speech, critical of party bureaucracy under Stalin
- 1961-62, following removal of Stalin's body, critical aspects of Stalin's rule
- Nonconformity 1950s: wanted to challenge alcoholism & laziness
- Poster Campaign to challenge these (Popular Oversight)
- e.g. The Lazy Bureaucrat 1961
- Campaign against Style Hunters 1950s-60s
- Abandoned Cultural liberation
- Brezhnev organised Sinyavsky-Daniel Trial 1966, writers of anti-soviet material, sent to labour camps
- Secret shows: Samizdat 1970s exposed dullness of communist life
- Bulldozer exhibition 1974, art exhibition bulldozed
The Secret Police NAME CHANGES
K& Breznhev: KGB 1954-91