Sino-Soviet relations 1949-1976

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  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 11-04-13 18:47
What were the Chinese views of Russia in 1949?
Mao had great respect for Stalin, believing him to be the undisputed head of the world revolutionary movement.
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Why was an alliance with the USSR so important to China?
It had become a key part of Mao's foreign policy in 1949; essential for protection against attack from the USA & other anti-communist forces within China; wanted help of Soviet experts to develop socialism in China
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What was the Russian view of China?
Stalin had been cautious about helping the Chinese communists against the nationalists during the civil war. In fact the USSR had helped the Guomindang (nationalists)
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When did Stalin openly support the Chinese Communist Party?
After Mao had secured victory against the nationalists in 1949
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Where was the Sino-Soviet Treaty negotiated? & Who by?
In Moscow from 1949. It was negotiated by Liu Shaoqi, Mao's Second in Command.
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When did Mao & Stalin first meet?
December 1949
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What were the terms of the Sino-Soviet Treaty, 1950?
Formal alliance; economic aid to China worth $300 million; USSR to restore Chinese sovereignty to Manchuria; China to control all regions railways; Military backing; Help for China to develop air force; all non-Soviet foreigners banned from the area.
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What were the limitations to the Sino-Soviet Treaty, 1950?
Mongolia still under Soviet influence; Stalin will not give China support to invade Taiwan; no joint communist plan for East Asia; Stalin forces Mao to drop plans to support the Vietminh against the French in Indochina.
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What was Mao's attitude to the Korean War?
He believed that the only way to unite Korea was through military action but he was not in favour of the North Koreans attempting this in 1950.
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What did Mao fear if the North Koreans attacked the South?
That this would result in a much greater American presence in the Far East, which would jeopardise Mao's plans to invade Taiwan.
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What did the Korean War present Mao with?
The opportunity to show the commitment of China to the revolutionary cause, although he was more hesitant in deciding how much military support China should send.
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What factors pushed Mao towards military intervention in Korea?
The threat of US action spilling into China; the debt owed to North Korean volunteers who had helped the CCP during the Chinese civil war & the opportunity the war provided for showing China's credential as a world revolutionary force
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How did Stalin influence Mao's decision to intervene in the Korean War?
He pushed for Chinese military involvement in preference to a direct Soviet presence in Korea; he warned China of the domino theory
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Evidence of inequality in the Sino-Soviet relationship
Stalin left matters of strategy to Mao but reserved the right to intervene & overrule where he felt it necessary; Soviet Officers views always prevailed over Chinese officers; Mao thought Stalins actions were in self-interest rather than proletarian
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What was the impact of the Korean War on Sino-Soviet relations?
Chinese had emerged as a power; by working with the USSR during the war a feeling of comradely cooperation between the communists powers had been engendered; Mao felt that if USSR would not help fellow comrades then China would
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Why was Taiwan & the Taiwan Straits a source of tension?
After the Chinese Communists had seized the mainland, the remnants of the Guomindang held onto control of smaller islands in the Taiwan Straits. To Mao the liberation of China under the communists would not be complete without these islands.
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What was Mao's motivation of shelling Quemoy (Taiwan strait island), 1954?
Mao wanted to highlight the issue of Taiwan, register the displeasure of communist china at the establishment of SEATO in September & help galvanise the Chinese population in the cause of socialist reconstruction
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What was the Soviet attitude to the shelling of Quemoy?
Despite the CCP not informing the Soviet leadership of their plans, Khrushchev was willing to support China militarily.
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What was the reaction of Guomindang? (Chinese nationalists)
They did not back down in the face of heavy bombardment of Quemoy; they were helped greatly by US support & military backing; In 1955, the Guomindang abonded the Taschen Islands to the Communists but held onto Quemoy & Matsu
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Why was there a 2nd Taiwan Crisis in 1958?
There was frustration at Taiwan's lack of concessions at negotiations started after 1958; desire to test US commitment to Taiwan; stir up 'revolutionary enthusiasm' in Chinese masses; opportunity to tie the USSR to defence of China
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What was the impact on Sino-Soviet relations?
The USSR had serious misgivings over Chinese tactics but felt that the forces of Communism needed to stand together against the USA.
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What was the outcome of the 2nd Taiwan Crisis?
By October, Mao had come to the conclusion that there were advantages in leaving Quemoy & Matsu in the hands of the Guomindang. By doing so Mao had a vulnerable tool through which pressure could be applied to the USA & Guomindang
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What did Mao suggest when he visited Moscow?
That he was the new leader of the world revolution.
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Why did the atomic bomb cause tension between China & USSR?
Khrushchev wouldn't give China the atomic bomb because they didn't need it. Instead Khrushchev gave aid to build one.
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When did Khrushchev & Mao's relationship begin to deterioate?
1959. When Khrushchev visited USA.
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What did Mao describe Khrushchev as?
An "American stooge"
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What did Khrushchev say about Mao?
That he was an "old boot that needed to be thrown out"/ prostitute.
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Evidence of ideological disputes between China & USSR
Soviets say we are Marxists. Chinese say no we are.
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When did Mao denounce the Soviets?
1963, following the partial Test Ban Treaty.
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When was the Chinese Nuclear Test?
1964
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Why was the Ussuri River important strategically to both countries?
Because if Russia invaded China through the river they would be able to get to Bejing easily & Russia was also sparsely populated, so Chinese invaders would be able to get to Moscow easy.
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What were the chances of war between China & Russia?
1 in 3.
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What were the causes of the Ussuri River dispute?
The geographical conditions of the damansky Islands made it difficult to draw borders - sometimes they're there, sometimes not. 1964 Khrushchev said he would give China back Damansky island, Mao boasted so K cancelled the agreement
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What happened on 1-2nd March 1969?
Approximately 300 Chinese soldiers crossed the Ussuri River to Damansky Island. The Soviet Unit on the Island was overturn.
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What was the Soviet death/injured toll on 2nd March?
31 dead & 14 injured.
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What happened on the 15th March?
The Chinese attacked the island again - but the Soviets attacked them - the Chinese lost 800 soldiers.
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What were the consequences of the Ussuri Dispute?
Damansky Island remained in Soviet hands; border dispute left unresolved; tensions increased along border; China rethought its foreign policy & relationship with USA.
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What was the rapprochement?
China & USA making friends again after 1969.
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What are the ideological reasons for the rapprochement?
Mao believed that a new bureaucratic class had become powerful in USSR & wanted to stop this happening in China.
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What were the geopolitical reasons for the rapprochement?
China was surrounded by enemies (USSR, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, India); Better relations prevented before, but now could - "ping-pong diplomacy"
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When did Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State visit China?
July 1971
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When did Nixon, the US president visit China?
February 1972 - it was considered a diplomatic success by both countries.
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What were the gains for USA?
Able to undermine USSR & exert pressure on the USSR in order to extract concessions from them; trade between China & US grew from $5million to $500 million.
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What were the gains for China?
Put pressure on USSR by visiting countries in Eastern Europe; By 1978 USA had given diplomatic recognition to communist regime in China; made Mao look better after chaos of cultural revolution
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What did friendly relations between China & US force the soviets to do?
To rethink its international relations. The world had to be seen in multi-polar terms, the USSR had to engage in triangular democracy
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What did triangular democracy result in?
Now each power tried to play off one against the over; if the USSR did not offer concessions to the US it could be pushed further towards a closer relationship with China.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why was an alliance with the USSR so important to China?

Back

It had become a key part of Mao's foreign policy in 1949; essential for protection against attack from the USA & other anti-communist forces within China; wanted help of Soviet experts to develop socialism in China

Card 3

Front

What was the Russian view of China?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did Stalin openly support the Chinese Communist Party?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where was the Sino-Soviet Treaty negotiated? & Who by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

NZLHistory

These flashcards are great for testing knowledge of the Sino-Soviet split including dates, events and key explanations. Useful for Cold War modules as well as Chinese history ones.

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