Sex and Gender

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What does sex mean?
A biological term if an individual is male or female.
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What does gender mean?
A psychological term if an individual is masculine, feminine or androgynous.
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What does androgynous mean?
A type of gender that an individual shows half and half masculine and feminine traits.
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What does masculine mean?
A gender term associated with male traits, e.g. aggression.
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What does feminine mean?
A gender term associated with female traits, e.g. maternal.
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What is the name of the core theory?
The biological approach.
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What does the biological approach mean?
That an individual's gender is decided at the same time as the sex is decided - at conception.
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The embryo is conceived with different sex hormones.
Males: XY Females: XX
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Males have XY chromosomes and females have XX chromosomes, what is this?
The embryo is conceived with different sex hormones.
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At 6 weeks, gonads change to?
Males: testes Females: ovaries
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Males and females have gonads that becomes testes for males and ovaries for females. When does this happen?
At 6 weeks
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Gonads produce?
Males: testosterone Females: oestrogen.
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What are testosterone for males and oestrogen for females?
They are what gonads produce.
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Hormones affect the brain differently for each gender, what are they?
They are better at certain skills, males: spacial and maths skills and, females: English and speaking skills.
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Different genders have better skills than others how is this?
Because hormones affect the brain differently for each gender.
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Hormones affect behaviour aswell...
...Males: aggression, Females: sensitive.
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What does evolution mean?
A process by which species adapt to their environment in order to survive and reproduce.
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Describe how males survive and reproduce.
Survive: athletic, dominant and aggressive Reproduce: Leadership abilities and competitive.
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Describe how females survive and reproduce.
Survive: cook, a caregiver Reproduce: selective and maternal.
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Give a criticism.
Ignores that gender roles can be learnt, socialising in communities of males and females - lacks ecological validity.
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Give another criticism.
If males and females are biologically the same for each sex, why are two sexes the similar? Males can be feminine and females can be masculine - lacks generlisability.
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Give a final criticism.
The biological approach says that biology is fixed so, why can you get change in gender roles? Females and males are becoming more androgynous as time changes. Men are making themselves look good as much as women do - deterministic.
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What is the name of the alternative theory?
The psychodynamic approach.
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Who came up with the psychodynamic approach?
Freud.
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What is the Electra complex?
This is the females. They desire their Dad and have penis envy. This leads to blaming the mum as she thinks she has already been castrated but, fear losing her love.Realise that they'll never get a penis and have a penis substitute-baby. Identifies M
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What is Oedipus complex?
This is the males. They desire their mother. This leads to castration anxiety as they fear father will chop it off. They identify with the Dad and develop masculine traits.
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Who did the core study? Date?
Diamond and Sigmundson, 1997.
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What was the aim?
To investigate whether a child cannot be socialised to take on the role of the opposite sex.
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What method did the they?
A case study through questionnaires.
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Give the background information.
Twins were getting circumcision where Bruce's got burnt off accidentally. A psychologist called Money suggested they raised him as a girl.
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Where did this family live?
Canada.
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What did Money believe?
That babies were not born with their gender and that it was upbringing that made them masculine or feminine.
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Give the procedure.
At 8 months Bruce was circumcised and when he was 17 months, he had his testes removed. He was re-named as Brenda and raised them as a daughter. She was led to believe that she was born a girl. At 13, the parents told her and she had a sex change.
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Give the results.
Money was involved a lot at first and asked her lots of questions. But, when she hit puberty, she had to have hormones to grow breasts and hips. She had a masculine appearance and liked masculine things. At 13 her parents told her and felt relieved.
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What happened to Brenda?
She got a sex change soon after 13 and called himself David.
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What did Diamond and Sigmundson conclude?
That the effect of David's chromosomes had outweighed the attempts to socialise him as a girl - gender is more a product of nature than nurture.
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Give a criticism.
Case studies are of one person. Bruce couldn't adapt to be Brenda and so it isn't generlisable to the population.
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Give another criticism.
Case studies are based on natural occurrings - this wasn't possible as he needed hormone implants when he reached puberty - lacks ecological validity.
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Give a final criticism.
Case studies are thorough investigations and so the researchers wanted what they hypothesised. This is why Money concluded that the change was a success - experimenter bias.
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What is the name of the applications?
Equal opportunities for the sexes.
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Key concepts on equal opportunities for the sexes in education? 4 things.
Positive discrimination, gender gap, natural differences and social pressure.
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Describe positive discrimination for equal opportunities for the sexes in education.
Males are really good at Maths and Geography and females are really good at English. So teachers would help females with Maths and males with English.If males and females are born with the same skills then they can potentially achieve the same thing.
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Describe natural differences in equal opportunities for the sexes in education.
Females are doing better in school for their GCSEs but, males are doing better with promotions at work. This is know as the 'gender gap'.
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Describe social pressures in equal opportunities for the sexes in education.
Social pressures is when people are struggerling, doing OK or exceeding in lessons due to the people they hang around with. If people are struggling it may be because they are uncomfortable.
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Give the two other equal opportunities for the sexes.
Equal opportunities for the sexes in: work and in leisure and pla
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Card 2

Front

What does gender mean?

Back

A psychological term if an individual is masculine, feminine or androgynous.

Card 3

Front

What does androgynous mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does masculine mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does feminine mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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