Science - P6 - Radioactive Materials

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Which of these sub-atomic particles is NOT found in the nucleus?
Electron
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What is the name of the process in which nuclei come together?
Nuclear Fusion
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How far can beta radiation travel through air?
A few tens of centimetres
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Which type of radiation needs many centimetres of lead to stop it?
Gamma radiation
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Which type of radiation cannot penetrate through a sheet of paper?
Alpha radiation
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What kind of radiation is given of naturally by the environment?
Background radiation
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What are Isotopes?
Isotopes are atoms of an element that have different mass numbers, because they have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
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What is Einsteins equation, which is used to calculate the energy released during nuclear fusion reactions?
E = mc2
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What is an Alpha particle?
Two protons and two neutrons - the same as a helium nucleus
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What is a Beta particle?
A fast-moving electron
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What is a Gamma ray?
High energy electromagnetic radiation
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What is radioactive decay?
The nuclei of radioactive atoms are unstable. They break down into a completely different type of atom
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What are the two definitions of a half - life?
The time it takes for the number of atoms in a sample to half / The time it takes for the activity of a source of radiation to fall to half it's starting level
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What is the radiation that reaches the Earth from outer space?
Cosmic Rays
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What type of gas do some rocks give off?
Radon Gas
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What damage is caused by irradiation?
Damage the cells of the person directly
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What two ways is radiotherapy administered?
From outside the body using x-rays or the radiation from radioactive cobalt / From inside the body by putting radioactive materials into the tumour, or close to it
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Who may be exposed to radiation on a regular basis?
Medical staff such as radiographers / Workers at nuclear power stations / Research scientists
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What are the three types of Nuclear waste?
Low Level / Intermediate Level / High Level
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How do you dispose of Low Level waste?
Put in drums and surrounded by concrete, then put into clay lined landfill sites
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How do you dispose of Intermediate Level waste?
Mix with concrete, then put in a stainless steel drum in a purpose - built store
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How do you dispose of High Level waste?
Stored underwater in large pools for 20 years, then placed in storage casks in purpose-built underground store where air can circulate to remove heat produced.
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What are the stages during Nuclear fission?
A neutron collides with a uranium nucleus. A uranium nucleus is large and unstable / The uranium nucleus splits into two similar-sized smaller nuclei / More neutrons are released / These neutrons can then collide with more uranium nuclei
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What are the advantages of Nuclear Power?
No carbon dioxide is produced when the station is operating / There is a high power output / A small amount of fuel is needed, when compared with coal or gas
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What are the disadvantages of Nuclear Power?
Hazardous radioactive waste is produced / Building the power stations is quite expensive / Decommissioning, ie taking apart, the power stations at the end of their lifetime is very costly
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the name of the process in which nuclei come together?

Back

Nuclear Fusion

Card 3

Front

How far can beta radiation travel through air?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which type of radiation needs many centimetres of lead to stop it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which type of radiation cannot penetrate through a sheet of paper?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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