science section 2

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What main seven groups do you need in a balanced diet
1) carbohydrates 2) Protiens 3) Fats 4) Vitamnis 5) Minerals 6) Rouphage 7) Water
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What do carbohydrates do
Fuel for the body. Active or growing folk
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What do proteins do
Proteins are vital for growth and to repair damaged areas.
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What do fats do
Fats act as a store of energy which you use if your body runs out of carbohydrates
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what do vitamins do
vitamins are only needed in very small amounts, they keep many vital processes happening
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What do minerals do
needed for blood, teeth/bones and nerves
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what does roughage (iron) do
roughage gives your digestive system an internal workout keeping it fit, healthy and working
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What does water do
About 75% of your body is water and all chemical reactions (e.g.digestive), take place in water- it's really important
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What is iodine the test for
starch
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Whats the test for protein
Biuret test
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What is the alcohol-emulsion test for
fats
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Whats the test for simple sugars
Benedict's test
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3 examples of carbohydrates
bread, potatoes, cereal
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3 examples of proteins
meat, fish, eggs
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3 examples of fats
butter, cooking oil, cream
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3 examples of vitamins
vegetables, fruit, cereal
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3 examples of minerals
salt, milk, meat
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3 examples of roughage (iron)
vegetables, fruit, cereals
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3 examples of water
hard water, soup, liquids (juice)
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What does digestion do
digestion makes large insoluble molecules of food into smaller soluble ones- which the body can absorb and use
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why is digestion important
because big food molecules cant pass through cell membranes
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What are the eight main bits of the alimentary Canel
mouth, gullet, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
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What goes on in the mouth?
digestion starts here where the teeth chew and mix the food with saliva-which contains a carbohydrase enzyme to digest carbohydrates
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what goes on in the gullet
links the mouth to the stomach
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what goes on in the stomach
here the food mixes with the protease enzymes which digest the proteins. Hydrochloric acid is present to kill bacteria and give a low PH for the enzymes to work.
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what goes on in the liver
the liver makes bile which emulsifies (breaks up) fats. It's also alkaline to give them the right PH for the enzymes in the small intestine
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What goes on in the pancreas
The pancreas makes three enzymes: 1)protease digests protein 2)carbohydrase digests carbohydrates 3) lipase digests lipids- i.e fats
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What goes on in the small intestine
This produces more enzymes to further digest proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Food is also absorbed through the gut wall into the blood, which then takes it around the body to wherever it's needed.
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What goes on in the large intestine
Here water is absorbed - so we don't all shrivel up
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what goes on in the rectum
Food often contains cellulose (plant material which we can't digest, so it's stored as faeces. Here the digestion story ends when it exits the ****.
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name three different digestive enzymes
glucose, amino acids, glycerol
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describe how villus is designed for its job of absorbing food into the bloodstream by naming the 3 things
1) thin outer layer of cells 2) good blood supply 3) larger surface area
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give three jobs that kidneys do
1)removal of urea 2) taking lons (like sodium) out of the blood 3)water regulation
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what would happen if we didn't have kidneys
we would get poisoned
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give 3 jobs of the skeleton
1) support 2)protection 3) movement
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scientific name for jaw=
mandible
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scientific name for collarbone=
clavicle
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scientific name for fingers=
phalanges
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scientific name for skull=
cranium
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scientific name for kneecap=
patella
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three types of joint
1) immovable 2) slightly moveable 3) freely moveable
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what does an immovable joint mean
you can't move them e.g. skull
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what does a slightly moveable joint mean
you can move them a bit e.g. spine
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what does a freely moveable joint mean
you can move them loads e.g. knee
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what are agonistic muscles
agonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other
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explain in terms of "muscle contraction" how you can move your arm up and down
one muscle contracts (shortens) whilst the other relaxes and vice versa
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list 6 changes girls and boys undergo during puberty
1)pubic hair 2) behaviour changes 3) voice deepens 4)menstruation starts 5)hair grows (on face, chest, armpits) 6)ovaries start to release eggs
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what causes spots
spots are caused by blocked pores
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where are sperm made? where are eggs made?
sperm is made in the testes. eggs are made in the ovaries
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what are the four main stages of the menstrual cycle
1) bleeding starts 2) lining of uterus starts to build up again 3) egg is released 4) wall awaits arrival of fertilised egg, if this doesn't happen the whole cycle starts again
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what is fertilisation
the egg is fertilised when the nuclei of the egg and sperm join
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what are the 5 things that must happen before a human embryo can start to develop
1) ovulation 2) copulation 3) fertilisation 4) cell division 5) implantation
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how does the bell jar demo compare to how we exhale and inhale
when you pull the rubber sheet down (this represents your diaphragm) it increases the volume inside the bell jar. Air rushes in to fill the extra volume-this is like breathing in.
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carry on for the demo
When you let go of the plastic sheet this is like relaxing your diaphragm .The volume in the jar gets smaller, so air rushes out.
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word and symbol equation for respiration
Glucose + oxygen ->carbon dioxide + water C6H12O + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
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what else is released during respiration
energy
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5 examples of what energy created from respiration is used for?
movement, repairing damage, growth, keeping warm and cell division.
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what are the three 'nasties' found in cigarettes
1)Nicotine 2)Tar 3) Carbon monoxide
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what health problems can nicotine cause
narrows the arteries and so causes high blood pressure
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what health problems can tar cause
coats the lining of the lungs making them less able to take in oxygen. It also contains carconigens which cause cancer
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what health problems can carbon monoxide cause
it's a poisonous gas which joins up with red blood cells making them incapable of transporting oxygen around the body.
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what does being healthy mean
1) healthy body that's all working properly 2) a healthy mental state where you're able to cope with the ups and downs of life.
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3 ways to ensure a healthy life
1)balanced diet 2) exercise 3) not abusing drugs
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3 main ways white blood cells protect us
1) They eat (engulf) microbes 2) They produce Antibodies 3) They neutralise the poisons or toxins
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difference between natural and artificial antibodies (passive)
natural = antibodies are passed from the mother to the offspring via placenta or breast milk, but artificial = A serum with antibodies is injected directly into the person
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difference between natural and artificial antibodies (Active)
natural = Antibodies are made by a person when microbes infect their body, where as artificial = A vaccine containing dead/modified microbes is injected into a person, causing antibodies to be made by the body, ready for when a real infection happens
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Card 2

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What do carbohydrates do

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Fuel for the body. Active or growing folk

Card 3

Front

What do proteins do

Back

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Card 4

Front

What do fats do

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what do vitamins do

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