how do historians know a lot about how prehistoric people lived
by finding their homes, tools and food
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why can we not find out much about medicine in prehistoric times
because we have no bodies only skeletons
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why can we never be absolutely certain about our ideas of stone age medicine
because there are no written records
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medieval treatment for headaches
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oldest surgical procedure
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what would prehistoric people use for medicine
plants, herbs and magic spells
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Ancient Egyptian time period
3000 BCE - 332 BCE
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were Ancient Egyptians farmers or hunters
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did Egyptians travel or stay in one place
they stayed in one place
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what things did Egyptians develop/make progress in
they invented boats, developed writing, made progress in medicine, had better communication, furthered research, and traded
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who did Egyptians trade with
India, China, Arabia and parts of Africa
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What did they trade?
Merchants would bring new herbs and plants with them, which were recommended as medicines, so Egyptian healers built up a wide knowledge of herbal medicines.
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What did Egyptians trade
They exchanged goods for herbs and spices
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Why were the Egyptians less likely to be at a shortage of food and plants
Because there was more stability
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Was Egypt wealthy?
Yes, it was a wealthy country with powerful rulers, international trade, large cities, writing, and one of the most advanced civilisations the world had known.
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Why was Egypt wealthy?
Egypt's wealth was based on the River Nile. When the river flooded every year it covered the surrounding land with fertile soil which gave rich harvests of good crops. Farming was so successful that landowners in Egypt became rich.
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What did Egypt's wealth lead to?
Various improvements in medicine
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Who did the rich employ?
Doctors to look after them
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What did the Pharoah have?
His own physician
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What did specialist doctors do?
They spent much of their lives trying to improve their understanding of medicine and health
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Rich Egyptians could also afford to employ...
...specialist craftsmen such as metal workers to make tools or jewellery for them.
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What did craftsmen make for doctors?
Fine bronze instruments, so Egyptian doctors worked with better medical instruments than healers in prehistoric times.
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How did Egyptians improve writing:
They developed papyrus (a type of paper made from reeds) and a simpler, quicker form of writing, which together made writing easier and more convenient than before.
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How did Doctors benefit from developments in writing?
Treatments and remedies could be written down and passed on accurately to other healers.
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What happened to someone's body when they died in Egypt?
Their body was embalmed.
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Why was the Nile so important to the health of farmland?
The irrigation channels dug by the farmers brought life to the farmland.
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How did Egyptian doctors use the Nile to think about the human body?
Similarly to the way the Nile had lots of irrigation channels, Egyptian doctors began to think of the body as having many channels inside it which if they became blocked, could cause a person to be unhealthy.
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What did Egyptians believe about the goddess Sekhmet, the goddess of war?
Egyptians believed that she caused and cured epidemics. Some of her priests were also doctors.
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Which body parts did Egyptians know about but not correctly understand the function of?
The heart, the pulse, liver, brain lungs and blood.
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What did Egyptians believe about the heart and blood?
They believed that the heart was the most important organ in the body. They described how blood flowed through over 40 channels from the heart to every part of the body. The blood carried air and water that were essential for life. Healthy channels were v
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Which organs were taken out when a body was embalmed?
All the organs except the heart, before the body was preserved with spices.
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How did Egyptians learn about anatomy?
Through embalming, but they didn't learnt that much because it was carried out quickly for religious reasons and because of the heat.
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Why was dissection of other parts of the body forbidden?
Because Egyptians believed that people would need their bodies in the afterlife.
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What did many Ancient Egyptian doctors and priests believe when there was no obvious reason for an illness?
They believed that the disease was caused by spiritual beings. When no-one could explain why someone had a disease, spells and magical potions were used to drive out the spirits.
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What did Egyptians believe disease was caused by?
Undigested food rotting in the bowels. Rotting food let off gases which seeped along the channels, causing disease in different places, and prevent the normal flow of blood, air and water.
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What did channels normally carry?
Blood, air and water.
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When did Egypt become a united country?
Around 3500 BCE
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Why was Egypt a peaceful country for many centuries?
Because natural boundaries protected it from invasion: to the west - impassable desert; to the south - high mountains; and to the north and east - the sea.
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Where did Egyptians travel?
All around the Mediterranean for trading, as they were skilled sailors and developed the first boats which could successfully sail that far.
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When did they begin building an empire?
Around 1500 BCE they began building an empire by conquering other countries in the Middle East.
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When was the Egyptian Empire overrun by itself and finished?
By 500 BCE
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In what year did temples called Asclepia begin to be built?
From about 600 BC
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Where was the most important Asclepion and when was it built?
In Epidaurus and it was built around 400 BCE.
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What was an Asclepion?
A temple dedicated to the god of healing, Asclepius, where people would go to be healed
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Were there places for a patient to get exercise at an Asclepion?
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True or false: there were no surgeries performed at Asclepeia?
False - some surgeries were performed e.g. to remove a traumatic foreign material. The patient in a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis", not unlike anethesia, induced ith the help of substances such as opium.
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Placebo effect
when you believe something is helping you, even though it isn't, but the belief that it is happening changes your mindset and makes you feel better.
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Where were Asclepeia built?
On hills far away from urban areas.
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Where Asclepeia start/spread to?
The main Asclepion was in Epidaurus, Greece, but they spread all the way to Rome.
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Which animals were sacred to Asclepius?
The serpent and the dog.
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Why di Greeks believe snakes had healing powers?
Because they were associated with Asclepius, who sometimes appeared as a serpent in dreams.
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What was the first step of being healed at an Asclepion?
First you would need to go through a purification process called Katharsis, which consisted of taking baths and having a cleansing diet for 6 days. They would also purge their emotions through art.
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What is the second step of being healed at an Asclepion?
Incubation/dream therapy
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What happened in dream therapy?
People were led into the Enkoimeterion, where they were put into a hypnotic state. They were visited by either Asclepius or one of his children who would tell you how to heal yourself. If you weren't visited, you could tell a priest about your dream and h
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After being cured, what should you offer to the god?
A sacrifice e.g. a rooster or a goat.
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What else did you have to leave for the god?
A simulation of the healed body part and a tablet with your name on
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Open-sided buildings where patients slept during Katharsis.
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the god of healing
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What did Greeks make major progress in?
recognizing that illness was a natural process
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True or false: Greeks had philosophers
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what were the four humours
yellow bile, blood, black bile and phlegm
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what did yellow bile represent
hot, dry and fire, summer
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what did black bile represent
cold, dry and earth, autumn
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what did phlegm represent
cold, wet and water, winter
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what did blood represent
hot, wet and air, spring
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how long did the four humours last
450 BC - 1858 AD
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look at the symptoms of the disease and decide what the disease or condition is
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make an educated guess about what the illness will do next, with or without treatment
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look and record the progress of illness, making notes of the signs and symptoms of the disease
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if necessary, give them medicines or advice on how to combat the illness or disease
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what needs to happen to the four humours for you to be health
they are essential agents and they must be balanced for a healthy lifestyle
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method to reduce amounts of blood
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books of Hippocrates' work
Hippocratic Corpus
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What did the Hippocratic Corpus do
they documented the many illnesses in Ancient Greece, and the different interactions with patients
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Clinical observation
relied on science not prayers, pioneered the process of diagnosis and prognosis, observed a patient's illness to try and find a natural cure
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Hippocratic Oath
The oath that every physician must take before practising medicine
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What does the Hippocratic oath ensure
That doctors will treat patients well and put their health first
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Doctor still use...
...the Hippocratic Oath
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Who taught their co-workers to take their jobs seriously
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To find out which humour was imbalanced, Greek doctors would perform a Clinical Diagnosis with these steps:
Diagnosis - Prognosis - Observation - Treatment
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Greek medical treatments aimed to rebalance the humours included:
bleeding, purging, vomiting
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Bleeding a patient was used right through to the
19th Century
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bleeding was where
a scratch was made in the skin and the blood was let out into a cup
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purging the bowel or making the patient vomit, which involved herbal concoctions.
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If the pain was under the diaghram, what medicines would they use to clear the bowels?
'If the pain is under the diaphragm, clear the bowels with a medicine made from black hellebore, cumin or other fragrant herbs.' From a book in the Hippocratic Colelction, c.300BC.
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The Greek doctors were aware of the need to prevent illness and advised their patients on hygiene, diet and exercise:
'He should wash face and eyes using pure water. He should rub his teeth inside and outside with the fingers using fine peppermint powder. Long walks before meals clear out the body...and give it more power for digesting.' From a 5th century Greek doctor's
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An example of Hippocrates's methods that are still used today
herbal medicines are still used today to clear throats. People brush their teeth with mint toothpaste and wash their faces and eyes to keep them clean.
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This person originally developed the theory of the Four Humours. It was later developed further by Hippocrates and later Galen.
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Clinical observation was carried out with the use of...
Hippocratic textbooks
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The Ancient Greeks tried to cure the sick by...
rebalancing the humours
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they would cure a cold by...
keeping the patient warm
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they would treat a fever (hot and wet) by
keeping the patient cool and dry
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if the ancient Greeks observed someone sneezing and with a runny nose, they believed that...
these were cold, moist symptoms and were therefore associated with the season of Winter. This person had too much phlegm in their body.
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to rebalance the four humours the ancient Greeks would use...
purging, bleeding and vomiting
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examples of Hippocrates's methods that are still used today are...
recommending exercise, a healthy diet and advising on good hygiene
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the Greeks believed that yellow bile was
hot and dry
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having too much blood in the body would produce symptoms that were...
hot and wet
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if you were born in the spring you were considered to have too much
blood in your body
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each humour later became associated with a particular...
mood e.g. too much blood made someone sanguine (cheerful and energetic)
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Galen believed that the humours could be balanced using the theory of opposites
If a patient was hot and dry, indicating they had too much yellow bile in them, they would be treated with cucumber.
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blood mood
sanguine (cheerful, energetic)
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phlegm mood
phlegmatic (calm)
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black bile mood
melancholic (pensive, sad)
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yellow bile mood
choleric (irritable, grumpy)
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when did Galen live
129 - 216 AD
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Galen was:
Rome's leading doctor; many inferior doctors passed his work as their own; Galen was a show-off but also a brilliant doctor.
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What did Galen believe about the brain and heart
he believed that the brain controlled the body, not the heart, and he showed this by experimenting on a pig
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what did Galen influence
western medical thoughts for the next 1400 years
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what was Galen's problem
he needed to study the inside of a body, but nobody would dissect a human corpse
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where would Galen go to find dead bodies
family tombs
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what did Galen dissect (mainly) instead of human beings
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how did being a doctor to gladiators help Galen
it helped him because he was able to see their wounds and injuries, which helped him understand the human body
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Bow many gladiators died in 5 years when Galen was a physician
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what did Galen discover
that the brain controls the whole body, the larynx produces voice, and the kidneys produce urine
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what did Galen discover about the blood
that blood in the arteries is different from blood in the veins, although he incorrectly thought that venous blood came from the liver
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what did galen prioritise
fitness, diet and hygiene
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what did he believe was more important: preventing illness or curing it?
preventing illness
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what did Galen explain the difference between
motor and sensory nerves, and did much much work on muscle tones
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what operations did Galen successfully perform
cataract operations on eyes by using a needle to remove the lens
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what did galen develop techniques for
setting fractures, keeping bones still, and treating trauma
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how many books is he thought to have written
over 60 books on medicine, used by medical students for over 1500 years
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what did public health schemes do
- they promoted health and hygiene
- avoided the spread of disease and dirty conditions which made people ill
- they provided water
- there were public baths, sewers and toilets
- they wanted soldiers to be healthy
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what did aqueducts do
got clean water into towns
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what did roman baths have
gymnasiums and massage rooms
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what were the worst diseases in ancient rome
malaria and tuberculosis
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was there an official street cleaning service in ancient rome
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romans thought that cleanliness would lead to
good health
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could the rich and poor both receive effective hygiene resources
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who invented the first real hospitals
the ancient romans
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siting settlements:
- roman cities, villas and forts were built in 'healthy' places
- houses or farms should be built at the foot of a wooded hill
- they placed barracks away from swamps, and if there were marshes in the way they would drain them. They knew that there were m
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providing water:
- water was provided through the aqueducts, which were water channels used to carry water from rivers into lakes and towns
- clean water was very important to romans.
- cities and towns were built near springs as this provided water to the town nearby and
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building baths:
- baths were used by the rich and poor because they were public.
- there was a small fee that had to be paid to enter the baths - about a quadrans (1/16th of a penny)
- even people who were sick were encouraged to bathe as it was felt that this would help
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toilets and sewers:
- rome had 144 public toilets which were flushed clean by running water.
- they needed a sufficiently effective drainage system.
- many romans believed that rome's sewers were the city's greatest achievement.
- seven rivers were made to flow through the c
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the church improved medical knowledge and surgery in the middle ages in education:
- universities and medical schools were set up all over Europe by the church e.g. Salerno, Paris, Oxford and Cambridge.
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the church improved medical knowledge in the middle ages:
medical knowledge did increase due to these universities e.g. John of Gaddesden an English physician (1280 - 1361) wrote the Rose Anglica a book of new drugs, diet ideas, cures and injuries. This was based on his study of Galen and Arabic writers and his
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the church improved medical knowledge and surgery in hospitals:
hospitals were founded by the church. they were often attached to monasteries. they did not offer medical treatment but rest, relaxation, prayer, care, herbal remedies and a balanced diet. St Leonard's in York had over 200 beds and in Stamford a hospital
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how did the church improve public health
they set up systems for fresh water in monasteries which improved public health.
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why did the church help care for the sick
because the teaching of the Christian church includes the sick, and caring for people is part of the church's tradition.
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for what other reasons did knowledge develop
- the hundred years war (1337 - 1453) gave surgeons more practise
- pharmacies were set up selling medicines and herbs: this idea was copied from Arab countries.
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the church hindered medical progress due to supernatural healing:
the church valued supernatural healing through prayer and pilgrimage. it saw disease as the work of God, as a punishment or as the work of the devil. this stopped people from looking for natural/scientific cures.
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the church hindered medical progress due to dissection:
according to Christianity, people will need their entire bodies when the end of the world comes, and so cannot be dissected at all. Until the 14th century no dissections were allowed and then only one annually after 1340. this stopped any development in u
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the church hindered medical progress due to Galen:
the church would not tolerate any teaching which went against Galen's ideas. this was seen as heresy. when Roger Bacon, a 13th century priest, said doctors should do original research, he was put in prison.
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other reasons medical knowledge was hindered:
- astrology; remained popular as did other superstitions not necessarily based on the church's teaching.
- medicine was only for the wealthy.
- bleeding; was always the most common remedy and tradition is hard to break.
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medieval period:
between 5th and 15th centuries
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destruction of the roman empire:
the western roman empire fell to Germanic peoples in the 5th century, and the eastern roman empire fell in the 15th century to the ottomans. With the collapse of the eastern roman empire, war destroyed many of the roman achievements including public baths
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the church believed only in...
...Galen and said that anyone who challenged Galen was going against God, and would be burnt alive.
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why was Galen's idea of the parts of the human body fitting together as a whole particularly important?
because the Christian church saw that Galen's explanation of the body fitted with the Christina belief that God created human beings.
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who ran hospitals
monks and nuns
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hospitals were aimed to...
...take care of, not cure their patients
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where/when was the first hospital set up
Paris in the 7th century
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what were hospitals usually part of
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how many hospitals were established in England and Wales during the middle ages through charity?
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what was ill health linked to
religion, because illness was seen as a punishment for your sins, and therefore often no doctors were appointed to hospitals, only priests, because it was felt that patients needed spiritual support more than medical treatment e.g. at St Bartholomew's hos
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could people with infectious diseases be treated at hospitals
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why did some patients get better
because they used rest, warmth, food and care
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why/when were Alms houses set up
in the 14th century to care for 'deserving' poor people.
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hospital rules about gender:
some hospitals didn't allow female patients as they might distract the men, and only women over 50 were allowed to be nurses because they thought that being old would stop them being distracting for men.
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superstition in the middle ages:
the ancient Greeks had looked for rational explanations. The church taught the opposite - that there were supernatural explanations for everything. People believed that God, the devil or the planets controlled their lives.
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the pope and his bishops were afraid that new ideas would challenge the power of the church, so every new idea was checked to make sure it did not challenge the bible.
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every village had its church and priests who told people what to believe and how to behave.
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monasteries controlled education. priests and monks were often the only people who learnt to read in this period. the only libraries were in monasteries and the church sometimes banned books which they did not want people to read.
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did the monarchy get involved in public health
no; they thought it was beneath them
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the black death:
killed nearly 50% of the population, and people thought it was a curse form god
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witchdoctors, plague doctors, surgeons:
witchdoctors: believed in supernatural cures
plague doctors: attempted to cure people by rubbing raw chicken on an open wound
surgeons: operated using the theory of the four humours
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true or false; hospitals were spacious
false; they were overcrowded
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most advanced city in the world in 900 AD
baghdad; the round city
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Islamic empire stretches from
Spain to India
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why do lots of people come through baghdad
the world's most important trade routes run through it
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who destroyed baghdad
nomadic warriors
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why was arab medicine famous in the middle ages?
- Ibn Sinna wrote a million-word textbook about medicine (the canon of medicine), and in Europe he was known as Avicenna.
- Rhazes wrote the first accurate descriptions of measles and smallpox.
- Ibn Nafis dared to disagree with Galen about how blood flow
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how did Islam not encourage new developments?
- Islamic law forbade the dissection of human bodies.
- Muslims also believed the Qur'an contained all important knowledge so there was no point in trying to make new discoveries.
- their attitude to the Qu'ran meant they were unwilling to criticise other
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many wars between Christians and Muslims over lands which both sides considered sacred; 1096 - 1291
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Islamic golden age
a period when Islam flourished economically, scientifically and culturally; 8th - 14th century.
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why were large hospitals built in Baghdad and Cairo
because the Qu'ran taught Muslims that taking care of the sick is very important
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prehistoric supernatural cures
chants, rituals, sacrifices, prayers trephining and spells
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prehistoric natural cures
rosemary, clay mended broken bones, animal fat covered burns, purging, mallow, yarrow
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any act that violates a law which results in a punishment
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any action that goes against religious teachings - breaks the relationship with God.
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two main Christina laws
(Matthew) 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.'
(Matthew) 'Love your neighbour as yourself.'
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Original sin
the first sin committed by man, where Eve at the fruit of the forbidden tree, and gave some to Adam to eat as well. - some Christians believe that we are born with a built-in urge to do bad things and disobey God.
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Noahide laws
Aren't explicitly listed in the bible, but are derived according to the Talmud's interpretation of Genesis 2:16 given to Adam, and Genesis 9:4-6 given to Noah.
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ten commandments
1. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me.
2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven images.
3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
4. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
5. Honour thy father and thy mother.
6. Thou shalt n
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seven Noahide laws
1. belief in God - do not worship idols
2. respect God and praise him - do not blaspheme His name
3. respect human life - do not murder
4. respect the family - do no commit immoral sexual acts
5. respect for other's rights and property - do not steal
6. c
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who did God call back to Egypt to deliver his people with the help of his brother Aaron
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Where did God lead Israelites
the red sea and promised lands
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What did God tell the Israelites at the foot of a mountain during a thunderstorm
The ten commandments
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three causes of crime
social, environmental, psychological
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the effects of society/people, peers, friends on your views
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living environment around you, area and living place and conditions where you are brought up/how you grow up
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your emotional/mental state/how you feel
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how many magistrates are there
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legal advisor to the justices, ensures everything runs properly and all the correct procedures are followed.
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ensures all witnesses have answered their summons, brings in witnesses, administers the oath, and says 'all rise'.
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prosecuting solicitor
presents the prosecution case, must prove three things to the satisfaction of the court: an offence has been committed, the defendant has committed the offence, all the evidence has been gathered in accordance to the correct evidence gathering procedures.
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defence solicitor
protects the interests of his client, challenges evidence that hasn't been gathered fairly
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how many people are there in the jury of a crown court
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interprets and upholds the law.
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cross examination
when the barrister from the opposite side questions the witnesses.
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defence barrister
tries to convince the jury the the defendant is not guilty.
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when the prosecuting barrister has not raised sufficient evidence to prove that the defendant has committed the alleged offence
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closing speeches
when both barristers outline their case and try to persuade the jury that the defendant is guilty/not guilty
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how do the jury reach their decision
the jury retire and use the evidence to have a conversation about what their decision should be
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foreperson of the jury
the person who announces the jury's verdict
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which court deals with more serious cases
crown court
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4 aims of punishment
deterrence, retribution, protection, reform
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if we punish harshly enough, it will put other people off doing the same crime
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prisons take the dangerous people out of society and so keep everyone safe
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punishment should be about trying to make a person realise what they did was wrong and make them never want to do it again
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punishment should be about making someone pay for what they have done, a form of revenge for what has been done
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a building where people are legally held as punishment for a crime they have committed, or while awaiting trial
purpose: all aims
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the most common type of sentence given by the court; they are used for low-level crimes.
purpose: deterrence, retribution
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community service
unpaid work that an offender is required to do as an alternative to prison
purpose: reform, retribution, deterrence
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capital punishment
death penalty
purpose: retribution, protection
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a period of supervision over an offender, instead of incarceration
purpose: protection, reform
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negatives of reform
some people think its too lenient, so the criminal isn't being punished enough or might not realise what they did wrong
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deterrence negatives
doesn't always stop people from committing crimes as they often think they can get away with it
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negatives of protection
doesn't make a criminal want to stop committing crimes like the other ones do, so when they eventually come out of prison they may just commit the crime again
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retribution negatives
unfair not to give people a chance to reform, and sometimes the person accused of a crime is later found to not be guilty, and therefore sometimes it isn't good to use very severe crimes, in case the 'criminal' is found innocent
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death penalty was abolished in the UK
in 1965 by the Abolition of the Death Penalty act
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what was abolished throughout the European Union under the European convention of Human Rights, which Britain signed in 1999
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arguments for capital punishment
- its the best way to protect society
- it shows the value of human life by giving the worst possible punishment to those who take it
- best deterrent
- is it fair that a life sentence does not mean life
- family and friends of a victim have the right to
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arguments against capital punishment
- no court system can be sure that the verdict is correct
- only God has the right to give and take life
- no conclusive evidence that the Death Penalty is an effective deterrent
- its barbaric
- doesn't give people a chance to reform
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Christian views for capital punishment
- best way to protect people
- the Bible supports capital punishment for lots of crimes
- the Christian church itself has used capital punishment so it can't be un-Christian.
- eye for an eye
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Christian views against capital punishment
- Jesus came to reform sinners
- Jesus said eye for an eye is wrong and instead said 'turn the other cheek'
- Jesus taught to show compassion
- Life is a gift from God, and only He can take it away.
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Muslim teachings for capital punishment
- Qu'ran says it may be allowed in certain causes
- Muhammad sentenced murderers
- Shari'ah law allows the death penalty for deliberate murder
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Muslim teachings against capital punishment
- the Qu'ran does not allow it for all cirmes
- Muhammad didn't enforce the death penalty (it's not compulsory)
- non-religious arguments as well
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prison chaplains
people from the religious community, such as rabbis or priests, who visit prisons in order to provide a pastoral role for prisoners who would like it.
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prison chaplains might:
- provide counselling service for the inmate
- talk to the prisoner if they're experiencing difficulties
- pray with the inmate
- help the inmate reform
- help the prisoner find religion again
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Parable of the sheep and goats
Jesus talks about how, at the end of the world, he will divide you between the sheep and the goats. Good people = sheep, bad people = goats. Sheep have eternal life, Goats have eternal punishment. Jesus says that to be a good person you have to do good ac
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Elizabeth Fry lived from
1780 - 1845
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Elizabeth fry religion
Quaker (Christian group)
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Facts about Elizabeth fry
- her family believed that girls should also be educated
- she ran a Sunday school
- in 1799 she married Joseph fry and then had 12 children
- she helped to improve prisons, in a programme that inspired Florence Nightingale
- she was on the 5 pound note
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- believe that each human being is of unique worth
- they believe that priests and rituals are an unnecessary obstruction between believers and God
- There are about 200,000 Quakers across the world.
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a religion which focuses on spiritual development and the attainment of a deep insight into the true nature of life
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How many Buddhists are there
approximately 376 million
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What do Buddhists seek to reach
a state of Nirvana
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Buddhist god:
no belief in a personal God
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there is a path to enlightenment:
practice and development of morality, wisdom, meditation
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three signs of existence
Tilakhana: uncertainty, impermanence and suffering
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Siddhartha Gautama
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Four Noble truths
- they contain the essence of the Buddha's teachings
- he came to understand them during his meditation under the Bodhi tree
- the truth of suffering (Dukkha)
- the truth of the origin of suffering (Samudaya)
- the truth of the cessation of suffering (Nir
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three ultimate causes of suffering (three poisons)
- greed and desire (rooster)
- ignorance or delusion (pig)
- hatred and destructive urges (snake)
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Buddha's life
- he was kept isolated in the palace, where he lived in wealth without human struggles
- when he was 29 he left the palace and saw a sick man and a dying man
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buddha means
the awakened one
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what are all beings unified by
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the middle way
one shouldn't bathe in luxury, one should live in moderation
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what is the root of all suffering
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how can we learn to move beyond suffering
with the eight fold path
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main schools of Buddhism
Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism
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five precepts
are guidelines for Buddhists to live their lives. Buddhists try to avoid lots of things including taking life, taking what is not given and sexual misconduct.
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Eightfold path
teaches Buddhists how to live their lives in the right way to reach enlightenment.
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performing negative actions will build up bad merit
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why are most Buddhists against the death penalty
- it breaks the first moral precept
- Buddhism teaches that it is not possible to create happiness by making other people suffer.
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what is the foundation of non-violent action
understanding and compassion
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violence can be action or non-action
- jailing someone because of understanding is non-violent action
- allowing people to kill without doing anything is violence
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a means of reducing the amount of time spent being punished
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biblical canon
a collection or list of sacred books that are accepted as genuine
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biblical writings not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture. also means dubious authenticity.
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what things are thought to be apocryphal
the stories and the idea of purgatory
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the intermediate state where souls are cleansed in order to enter heaven
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where/why did the belief in purgatory arise
it arose out of veneration for the dead; families believed they could help loved ones through prayer or indulgences by shortening their stay in purgatory
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venial sin
gossiping, rudeness; would send you to purgatory
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mortal sin
haven't repented, break relationship with God
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process after death:
die - 1st judgement of soul - either go to heaven, purgatory for venial sins or hell for mortal sins - end of the world - second judgement (body and soul are resurrected) - heaven and purgatory go to heaven, hell returns to hell, new Earth is created
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Catholics believe:
- purgatory is the final place of purification
- purification involves discomfort
- prayers on earth can assist those in purgatory
- Jesus made it impossible for us to be separated from God
- salvation: saved by Jesus through his sacrifice, your sins hav
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what would people do to have time in purgatory reduced
give money
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'But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth.
Exodus 21:23 - 24
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'Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, "Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother or sister who sins against me? Up to seven times?" Jesus answered, "I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times."'
Matthew 18:21-22
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'You have heard heard that it was said, "Eye for an eye, and tooth for a tooth." But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also.'
Matthew 5:38-39
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'Do not conform to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God's will is - his good, pleasing and perfect will.'
Romans 12:2
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