Roots

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 04-05-15 15:27
1. What has been the main trend for the changing UK population over the last decade?
It has been positive net migration yet net emigration was the dominant trend for much of the 20th century. The population is also ageing; the proportion of over-60s is expected to rise to 26% by 2020 & 38% by 2050.
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2. How has the UK's changing population been affected by fertility rate?
In 2006, it was 1.84. (3.5 in 1900, low of 1.6 in 2001. Slight upward trend since 2001.) Due to women marrying & having children later, more career focused, children are seen as a cost & availability of contraception & abortion increased.
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3. How has the UK's changing population been affected by birth rate (BR) (per 1 000)?
In 2006, it was 10.7/1 000. (28/1 000 in 1900, now steady. WWI&II made trend briefly reverse.) Due to recent migration helping BR begin to rise, 20% all UK births now to migrants.
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4. How has the UK's changing population been affected by infant mortality (per 1 000)?
In 200, it was 5/1 000. (Dramatic fall from 140/1 000 in 1900.) Due to improved medical/NHS postnatal care since 1945.
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5. How has the UK's changing population been affected by family size?
In 2006, it was 2.4. (~6.0 in1900. 29% households 1 person, 36% 2. Common family (couple with 2 children) less common.) Due to fertility rate decline, rise in single people & those who never marry. Rise in divorce has created many smaller households.
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6. How has the UK's changing population been affected by ethnicity?
In 2006, it was 8%. (Grown from a tiny proportion in 1945, around 50% are Asian/Asian British, Black/Black British 25%.) Post-war migration main driving force. Began in 1950s & continued since.
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7. How has employment in the UK changed?
One of the most significant changes has been the decline in primary & secondary employment, & the industrial transition. In 1920, there were 1.2 mn coal miners in the UK, today only a few thousand. In the mid-1960s, 1.5 mn people were employed in the
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7. How has employment in the UK changed? [continued]
textile industry. Today 76% of the workforce is employed in the service industry, rising from 58% in 1975.
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8. Why has the transition to a service-based economy been painful?
In 1983, there were 3 mn people unemployed (12% of workforce) as the UK deindustralised. By the 21st century, the tertiary economy had created many new jobs, including highly-paid professional jobs, & quaternary industry had grown.
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9. What has this rising affluence led to?
Mass car ownership, foreign holidays & second homes. The sum of all of these changes has been to extend social mobility & increase the proportion of people in the UK who consider themselves 'middle-class'.
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10. What types of regional population change has deindustrialisation and the move to service industries caused?
Internal migration to the south & east, averaging 30 000 people/yr since the 1970s. Rural depopulation as agriculture has mechanised. A movement of people out of declining city centres into suburbs & the rural-urban fringe. Counter-urbanisation from
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10. What types of regional population change has deindustrialisation and the move to service industries caused? [continued]
cities to the accessible countryside, ~90 000 people/yr since the 1970s. International immigration into cities, especially in the south, midlands & northwest.
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11. Where does the ageing/greying population have its roots?
In the baby boom of 1945-65, when BRs were higher than today. People born in 1945 reached 65 in 2010. Those born in 1965 will be 65 in 2030, when 25% of the UK's population will be over 65.
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12. Why has the ageing issue been made more acute by 'Generation X'?
They were born in the 'baby bust' era (1965+) as fertility rates fell dramatically due to female emancipation & availability of the contraceptive pill. They will be the working-age population in 2010-30 needed to support the greying population.
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13. How will dependency ratios change in the future?
They will rise. In 1971, there were 3.6 working-age people to every pensioner, falling to 3.3 in 2003 & projected to fall to 2.3 in 2051.
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14. What are some economic challenges presented by the greying population?
Maximising employment (80%+) & tax revenue. The costs of providing long-term care will rise. NHS costs will increase, especially for expensive long-term chronic conditions. General taxation may need to rise. Skilled labour shortages may occur.
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15. What are some economic opportunities presented by the greying population?
Many older people do not want to retire at 65, allowing to work would increase tax take. A system of personal pensions (for those who can afford it) would relieve pressure on the state system. The 'grey pound' is a source of economic growth & new
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15. What are some economic opportunities presented by the greying population? [continued]
market opportunities. Many OAPs have money to spend on age-specific products, from Saga holidays to stairlifts.
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16. What are some social challenges presented by the greying population?
Housing will remain occupied, so new housing needed for younger people. The number of single-person retired households will rise. Pressure to raise the state pension retirement age wil grow.
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17. What are some social opportunities presented by the greying population?
An older society may be more law-abiding so less need for police & prisons. Desires to 'do good' & 'stay active' may lead to a rise in voluntary & community work. Older grandparents, healthy & fit at 70/80, may take more responsibility for childcare.
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18. What are some environmental challenges presented by the greying population?
New sites will need to be found for care homes & retirement homes. Falling population could cause an increase in depopulation & dereliction in some areas.
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19. What are some environmental opportunities presented by the greying population?
The 'grey vote' may become a powerful political force, possibly focusing on isues such as equality & environmental sustainability.
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20. What are some radical actions that the UK may have to consider to offset the ageing population?
Raising the retirement age. Using the tax system to encourage private pension provision. Using immigration to help raise fertility & avoid population decline. Changing attitudes so that older people are seen as assets rather than costs.
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Card 2

Front

2. How has the UK's changing population been affected by fertility rate?

Back

In 2006, it was 1.84. (3.5 in 1900, low of 1.6 in 2001. Slight upward trend since 2001.) Due to women marrying & having children later, more career focused, children are seen as a cost & availability of contraception & abortion increased.

Card 3

Front

3. How has the UK's changing population been affected by birth rate (BR) (per 1 000)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4. How has the UK's changing population been affected by infant mortality (per 1 000)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

5. How has the UK's changing population been affected by family size?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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