Revision for Chemistry 1b

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What is 'cracking'?
Cracking is the splitting up of long chain hydrocarbons
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Give an example of a substance that it cracked, and the products that you get from cracking it
Kerosene -> Octane + Ethene
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What kind of carbon-carbon bond do alkenes have?
Double bond
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What is the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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What are polymers?
They are very large, long-chain molecules
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What are polymers created from?
Monomers
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Give two factors which can affect the physical properties of polymers
Temperature and pressure
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List four products that are made from polymers
Lycra fibre, biodegradable packaging, plastic bags and memory foam
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Why might polymers become more expensive in the future?
As crude oil resources get used up, the price of crude oil will rise; therefore, crude oil products like polymers will become more expensive
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Why are oils distilled after they have been extracted?
Distillation refines oil, and removes water, solvents and impurities
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List two advantages of using vegetable oils in food
1. They have a higher boiling point than water (so food is cooked quicker) 2. They enhance the flavour of the food
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Apart from in food, give one use of vegetable oils
To produce fuels
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What kind of carbon-carbon bond do saturated oils contain?
Single bond
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What is the process called when you react unsaturated oils with hydrogen?
Hydrogenation
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Why do processed products usually contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils instead of butter?
These oils are a lot cheaper than oil and they also have a longer shelf-life
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Give an example of an emulsion
Mayonnaise
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What is the 'head' of the emulsifier called (likes water, hates oil)?
Hydrophillic
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What is the 'tail' of the emulsifier called (likes oil, hates water)?
Hydrophobic
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Suggest one problem of adding emulsifiers to food
Some people are allergic to certain emulsifiers (e.g. egg yolk)
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What two pieces of evidence did Wegener use to support his theory of continental drift?
Similar fossils found on different continents and matching layers in the rock in different continents
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What can be found beneath the Earth's crust?
Mantle
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Name the two main gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere today
Nitrogen and oxygen
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Name the three main stages that explain why today's atmosphere is different form the Earth's early atmosphere
1. Volcanoes gave out gases 2. Green plants evolved and produced oxygen 3. Ozone layer allows evolution of complex animals
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What is the primordial soup theory?
It states that billions of years ago, the Earth's atmosphere was rich in nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia and methane
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Why do we fractionally distil air?
We do this to get a variety of products for use in industry
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give an example of a substance that it cracked, and the products that you get from cracking it

Back

Kerosene -> Octane + Ethene

Card 3

Front

What kind of carbon-carbon bond do alkenes have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the general formula for alkenes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are polymers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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