Structure & Bonding:
- Chemical bonding involves either transferrring or sharing electrons in the outer shells of an atom.
- Atoms that lose electrons become positively charges ions.
- Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged ions.
- Ionic compounds are held together by strong electrosatic forces of attraction.
- When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds.
Structure, Properties and uses:
- When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity. Covalent compounds do not.
- Diamond and graphite have different properties determined by their structures.
- Nanoscience refers to structures that are 1-100 nm in size and of the order of a few hundred atoms.
- Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern.
- Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices), high melting and boiling points.
- The properties of thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers depend on what they are made from and how they are made.
Atomic structure, analysis & quantative chemistry:
- Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
- The relative atomic mass (A) and the the relative formula mass (M) allow numbers of particles to be compared.
- The amount of a product obtained is known as yield.
- Elements and compounds…