Respiratory substrates

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 12-06-16 18:41
What are respiratory substrates?
Organic substrates that can be used for respiration.
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What is produced more when there are more protons?
More protons = More ATP.
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What is glucose known as and what can it only be used for by some cells?
Known as the chief respiratory substrate and some mammalian cells such as red blood cells can only use glucose for respiration.
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What are 2 more examples of monosaccharides?
Fructose and galactose
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What is the theoretical maximum energy yield for glucose?
2870 KJ mol -1
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How many KJ's does it take to make 1 ATP?
30.6 KJ make 1 ATP.
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What is the actual yield of ATP and what is the efficiency?
30 mol ATP, efficiency of 32%.
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What is the remaining energy released as and what does this help to do?
Remaining released as heat which helps maintain a suitable body temperature, allowing enzyme-controlled reactions to proceed.
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What happens to excess amino acids?
Excess are deaminated.
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What does deamination involve?
Involves removal of the amine group and its conversion to urea. Rest of the molecule is stored as fat.
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What happens when an organism is undergoing fasting, starvation or prolonged exercise?
Protein from muscle can be hydrolysed to amino acids which can be respired.
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What can happen to some of the protein?
Some can be converted to pyruvate or acetate and carried to the Krebs cycle and some can enter the Krebs cycle directly.
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Do carbohydrates or proteins release more energy?
Proteins release more energy.
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What are triglycerides hydrolysed by and to?
Hydrolysed by lipase to fatty acids and glycerol.
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What can glycerol be converted to and what for?
Glycerol converted to glucose and respired, but fatty acids cant.
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What are fatty acids?
Long-chain hydrocarbons with a carboxylic acid group.
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Why do fatty acids produce a lot of ATP?
Because carbon and hydrogen atoms are a source of many protons for oxidative phosphorylation.
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What is each fatty acid combined with and what does this require?
Fatty acids combined with CoA. This requires energy from hydrolysis of a molecule of ATP to AMP and 2 inorganic phosphate groups.
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Where is the fatty acid-CoA complex transported into?
Transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it is broken down into 2-carbon acetyl groups that are attached to CoA.
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What is formed during this breakdown and by what?
Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are formed by the B-oxidation pathway.
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Where are the acetyl groups released from and where do they enter?
Released from CoA and enters Krebs cycle.
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What are formed by each acetate?
3 molecules of reduced NAD, 1 molecule of reduced FAD and 1 molecule of ATP.
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Where and when is the large amount of reduced NAD reoxidised?
Reoxidised at the electron transport chain during oxidative phosphorylation, producing large amounts of ATO by chemiosmosis.
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Describe ranking of energy produced by carbohydrate, lipid and proteins
Lipids produce the most ATP, followed by proteins and carbohydrates make the least.
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Card 2

Front

What is produced more when there are more protons?

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More protons = More ATP.

Card 3

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What is glucose known as and what can it only be used for by some cells?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are 2 more examples of monosaccharides?

Back

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Card 5

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What is the theoretical maximum energy yield for glucose?

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