Research Methods

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  • Created by: amycarter
  • Created on: 03-03-14 17:12
What is internal and external validity?
Internal validity is whether a study has tested what it set out to test and external reliability is the extent to which the findings can be generalized to other settings/groups and will still be relevant over time
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What is internal and external reliability?
Internal reliability is whether the test is consistent within itself e.g. all questions should measure the same thing and external reliability is whether there is consistency from one occasion to another
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What is inter-rater and intra-rater reliability?
Inter-rater reliability is the consistency between different researchers working on the same study but intra-rater reliability is the consistency between the actions of one researcher on different occassions
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List the six ethical issues
Privicy / Confidentiality / Informed Consent / Right to Withdraw / Psychological or Physical Harm / Deception
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List the five types of sampling
Random / Stratified and quota / Self-selected / Systematic / Opportunity
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Define random sampling and give a benefit and drawback
When every memeber in the target population has an equal chance of being picked. All members of the target population have an equal chance of being picked so it's unbiased but it's time consuming to write a list of all individuals first
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Define stratified and quota sampling and give a benefit and drawback
Dividing the population into subcategories + selecting members in the proportion that they occur. An effort is made to make sure the sample is representative but it can be time consuming as subcategories have to be identified + proportions calculated
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Define self selected sampling and give a benefit and drawback
Individuals volunteer to be a part of the study. Ethical as it leads to informed consent but likely to be unrepresentative as it will attract people of the same personality type e.g. helpful
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Define systematic sampling and give a benefit and drawback
Using a predetermined system with a target population. It's unbiased as participants are selected using an objective system but not everyone has an equal chance of being picked so it's not completely random
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Define opportunity sampling and give a benefit and drawback
Selecting the people who are available at the time. Quick, convenient and economical but very unrepresentative as the people are all in the same place at the same time and often biased by the researcher as they can pick who they want
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Give an advantage and disadvantage of using the mean
It makes use of the values of all the data but it can be misrepresented if there are some extreme values
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Give an advantage and disadvantage of using the median
Not affected by extreme abnormal scores but no all the scores are refelcted
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Give an advantage and disadvantage of using the mode
useful when data is in categories but can become confusing if there are several modes.
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Give an advantage and disadvantage of using the range
Easy to calculate and reflects the consistency of results but can be affected by extreme values
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Give the three types of studies
Natural Experiment / Field Experiment / Laboratory Expermient
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Define a natural experiment with a benefit and drawback
Existing differences of the IV are used instead of manipulation from the experimenter. Natual envirmoent makes findings more accurate to the real world but it cannot be replicated, reducing reliability.
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Define a field experiment with a benefit and drawback
IV is manipulated to see the effect on the DV in the participant's natural environment. Natural environment means data can be more accurately applied to real situations but there will be more EVs so it's harder to establish causal relationships
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Define a lab experiment with a benefit and drawback
Study in an artificial, controlled environment where the IV is manipulated to see the effect it has on the DV. Standardized procedures allow it to be repeated but demand characteristics will be high
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What are the four types of observations?
Unstructured / Structured / Naturalistic / Controlled
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Describe unstructured observations with a benefit and drawback
Researcher writes down all behavior. Gives detailed qualitative data but eye catching behavior may distract form the important bits
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Describe structured observations with a benefit and drawback
Use of systems to organize specific observations e.g. coding systems to record how often something occurs. Accurate because you know what you're looking for but coding systems may distract you from what's happening
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Describe naturalistic observations with a benefit and drawback
In a naturalistsic setting the observer doesn't interfere but just observes the behavior in question. Behavior is natural - no demand characteristics but the observer has not control so causal relationships are harder to find
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Describe controlled observations with a benefit and drawback
Behaviour is observes in controlled conditions e.g. lab. easy to control EVs and establish causal relationships but demand characteristics will be high
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What are some ethical issues raised by the use of observations?
Informed consent / privacy / deception
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Give the four question types for questionnaires
Open questions / Closed questions / Semantic differentials / Likert scales
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Describe what an open question is and what type of data it collects
The participant can give an extensive answer of their wish - qualitative
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Describe what an closed question is and what type of data it collects
There are a set number of responses that the participant can chose from - quantitative
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Describe what a likert scale is and what type of data it collects
There are a number of responses to a question which often demonstrate a degree of agreement - quantitative
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Describe what semantic differentials are and what type of data they collects
The participant makes a mark on a line to express the level of agreement with a particular view - quantitative
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Give two advantages of questionnaires
You can collect the same information from a large number of people relitively easily and you can directly ask what people think rather than just guessing from their behavior
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Define a structured interview with a benefit and drawback
The questions are decided in advance. Questions are standardized so can easily be repeated but the answers given may be restricted by the questions asked
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Define an unstructured interview with a benefit and drawback
General questions get more specific as a result of the answers given. More detailed information can be ga
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Define a semi-structured interview with a benefit and drawback
The interviewer may have a series of prepared questions but will alter them as they go along depending on the participant's response. Both types of data can be collected but there could be an interviewer bias
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Explain two ethical issues raised by the use of questionnaires/interviews
Confidentiality / Psychological harm
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Give two disadvantages of questionnaires
Leading questions could cause participants to answer in a certain way and they rely on an individuals ability to report their own feelings/behavior accurately
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is internal and external reliability?

Back

Internal reliability is whether the test is consistent within itself e.g. all questions should measure the same thing and external reliability is whether there is consistency from one occasion to another

Card 3

Front

What is inter-rater and intra-rater reliability?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

List the six ethical issues

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List the five types of sampling

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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