Research methods

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  • Created by: Magdalene
  • Created on: 27-04-16 16:28
What is random sampling?
All members of the population have an equal chance of selection
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What is systematic sampling?
Selecting every nth person from a list
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What is stratified sampling?
Sample reflects the proportion to of people within different population strata
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What is opportunity sampling?
Choosing whoever is available
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What is volunteer sampling?
Participants 'self-select'
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What are extraneous variables?
Nuisance variables but randomly distributed
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What are confounding variables?
Vary systematically with the IV
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What are demand characteristics?
Participants second guess the aims and alter their behaviour
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What are investigator effects?
The conscious influence of the researcher on the research situation
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What is randomisation?
The use of chance to reduce the researcher's influence
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What is standardisation?
Ensuring all participants are subject to the same experience
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What are aims?
The purpose of the investigation
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What are hypotheses?
The formulation of a testable statement
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What are independent groups?
Participants in each condition of an experiment are different
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What are repeated measures?
All participants take part in all conditions
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What are matched pairs?
Similar participants put in pairs and allocated to different experimental conditions
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What are lab experiments?
IV is manipulated in a controlled setting
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What are field experiments?
IV is manipulated in a natural setting
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What are natural experiments?
IV has been manipulated naturally, effect on DV is recorded
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What are quasi-experiments?
IV based on an existing difference between people, effect on DV is recorded
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What are naturalistic observations?
Behaviour is observed where it would normally occur. There is no control over variables
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What are controlled observations?
Where there some control over environment, including manipulation of variables to observe effects
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What are covert observations?
Observing participants with their knowledge
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What are overt observations?
Observing participants without their knowledge
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What is a unstructured observational design?
Where the researcher records everything
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What is a structured observational design?
When the researcher controls what is recorded
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What is event sampling?
When the researcher counts the events
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What is time sampling?
When the researcher counts at timed intervals
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What are questionnaires?
Pre-set list of written questions
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What are closed questions?
There are a fixed number of answers
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What are open questions?
There are not a fixed number of answers
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What are structured interviews?
Pre-set questions in a fixed order
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What are unstructured interviews?
No set formula, just a general topic. Questions developed based on responses
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What are semi-structured interviews?
Pre-set questions with flexibility to ask follow ups
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What is qualitative data?
Written, non-numerical description of the participants thoughts, feelings or opinions
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What is quantitative data?
Expressed numerically rather than in words
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What is primary data?
Collected first hand from participants for the purpose of the investigation
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What is secondary data?
Collected and analysed by someone other than the researcher
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What is the difference between correlations and experiments
Experiments: no IV or DV. Correlations: no manipulation of variables
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How do you calculate the mean?
Add them all up and divide by the number
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What is the median?
The middle value
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What is the mode?
The most frequent occurring
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How do you calculate the range?
Subtract the lowest from the highest
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What does standard deviation do?
Measures how much scores deviate from the mean
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is systematic sampling?


Selecting every nth person from a list

Card 3


What is stratified sampling?


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Card 4


What is opportunity sampling?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is volunteer sampling?


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