Research Methods 2

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Lab Experiments
Conducted in a tightly controlled environment. The experimenter deliberately manipulates the independent variable and measures the dependent variable. Extraneous variables are controlled and standardised procedures are used.
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Field Experiments
Conducted in a more natural real world environment. The experimenter deliberately manipulates the independent variable and measures the dependent variable which is usually quantitative data. Some extraneous variables are controlled.
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Natural/Quasi Experiments
The most natural type of experiment where the experimenter has no control over the independent variable. The experimenter measures the dependent variable and has no control over the extraneous variables.
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Natural
The IV varies naturally, for example the effect of poverty on mental health.
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Quasi
The IV occurs naturally, for example gender (males and females occur naturally).
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Experimental Design
Two conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.
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Independent Measures Design
Involves using different people in each condition. One group of people used in control group 1 and another group of people in control group 2.
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Repeated Measures Design
Involves using the same people in each condition.
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Counterbalancing
This is how you overcome order effects. It is where the group of participants are split into two and perform the tasks in a different order. This ensures that each condition is tested 1st or 2nd in equal amounts. Differences will be balanced out.
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Matched Paired Designs
Involves using different participants in each condition, but participants are matched with another participant in the other group. Their pair is similar to them in a number of ways.
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Observational Techniques
A non-experimental way of studying behaviour. Involve watching and recording behaviour.
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Lab/Controlled (Observation Techniques)
Observation in a highly controlled environment, artificial.
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Naturalistic (Observational Techniques)
Observation in a natural environment.
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Participant (Observational Techniques)
A technique of observation where the researcher is part of the group being studies.
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Non-Participant (Observational Techniques)
A technique of observation in which the investigator observes from a distance without being a part of the group which is being observed.
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Covert (Observational Techniques)
A technique of observation in which the participants are unaware of being observed. Such observations should take place in public in order to be ethical.
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Overt (Observational Techniques)
The participants are observed post their informed consent.
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Observer Bias
Observers tend to interpret data as per their expectations, feelings, thoughts, intent and emotions. This can undermine the objectivity of the study.
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Inter-Observer Reliability
This can overcome Observer bias. It is when independent observers code behaviour in the same way (two researchers agree on a score of 3 for safe driving).
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Observational Design
How the data should be recorded, either structured or unstructured.
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Structured
Follows a scientific method, simplify target behaviour to be observed. This is used for objective, quantitative data. Follows a systematic sampling method to record behaviour. Event sampling and time sampling.
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Unstructured
Where everything that is observed is noted. This provides rich data, subjective, qualitative data. It is a continuous recording of behaviour.
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Event Sampling
Involves counting the number of times a particular behaviour (event) occurs in the target group. (Tally chart).
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Time Sampling
Involves recording behaviour within the pre-established time frame. (The set time you choose to observe, e.g. every 15 minutes).
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Correlational Studies
Correlation measures the relationship between two variables. The relationship can be positive or negative. The relationship can be weak or strong. A correlation can be represented on a scattergram.
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Positive Correlation
As one variable increases, so does the other.
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Negative Correlation
As one variable increases, the other decreases.
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Self-Report Techniques
These are research methods in which participants give information about themselves.
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Questionnaire Features (Self-Report Technique)
Involve asking questions about a specific topic to investigate their views, opinions and attitudes. Researcher tries to select a large representative sample. Open and closed questions need to be asked and you should allow for don't know answers.
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Open Questions
Allows respondents to write their own answer and so allow freedom of expression and greater depth of answers. Produces qualitative data.
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Closed Questions
The resspondents choose their response from a limited number of fixed responses predetermined by the researcher. This produces quantitative data.
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Aim (Questionnaire Construction)
Having an aim makes it easier to write questions that address the aim.
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Length (Questionnaire Construction)
Questions should be short and to the point as the longer the questionnaire, the less likely people will complete it.
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Previous Questionnaires (Questionnaire Construction)
Use examples of previous successful questionnaires as a basis for the questionnaire design.
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Questionnaire Formation (Questionnaire Construction)
Questions should be concise, unambiguous and easily understood.
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Pilot Study (Questionnaire Construction)
They should be tested on people who can provide detailed and honest feedback pm all aspects of the design.
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Measurement Scales (Questionnaire Construction)
These are used to assess pyschological characteristics or attitudes. Involve statements which participants rate levels of agreement or disagreement on a likert scale.
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Likert Scale
These scales use a number of statements relating to a topic. However it is not always easy for participants to judge answers, so may choose the middle score.
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Interviews (Self-Report Technique)
Useful for gathering detailed information and enabling a more natural and flexible approach to questionning. The interviewer usually has certain topics to explore. Interviews can be structured, unstructured or semi-structured. Open and closed.
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Structured Interview
Interviewer mainly asks prewritten questions but they may ask follow-on questions to clarify the response. Open or closed questions. The interviewer does not need much training as the interview is easy to conduct.
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Unstructured Interview
The interviewer has a few pre-determined questions and will have a number of topics to explore. More like a converstaion. Questions tend to be open and the interviewer needs training and skills to carry out the interview.
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Semi-Structured Interview
The interviwer will combine some features from the structured interviews and some features from the unstructured interview. This produces quantitative and qualitative data.
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Design of Interviews (PEG)
These are the decisions that need to be made about who is the most appropriate interviewer. Interpersonal variables affect the decision.
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Personal Characteristics and Adopted Role (P, Design of Interviews)
Interviwers can adopt different roles in an interview and the use of formal language, accent and appearance can also affect how they come across in an interview.
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Ethnicity (E, Design of Interviews)
May be a difficulty of interviewing people from a different ethnic group to themselves.
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Gender and Age (G, Design of Interviews)
The sex and age of the interveiwer can affect participants answers when topics are of a sensitive sexual nature.
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Ethical Issue
Conflict between what the researcher needs in order to conduct useful and meaningful reserach and the rights of the participant. Conflicts about what is acceptable. Proposed by the British Psychological Society (BPS).
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Deception
Decieving participants by not telling them the aim of the experiment. Unethical as it prevents the participant from giving informed consent. The participant could then see psychologists as untrustworthy.
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Prior General Consent (Overcoming Consent)
Getting consent from the participant by decieving them. Participant agrees that they won't object to being decieved in the a future research study so when the participant is involved in a future study, it's assumed that they've agreed to be decieved.
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Presumptive Consent(Overcoming Consent)
Where a random sample is taken from a target population and they are then shown the research. If the sample says they would give their consent then it's generalised and assumed the entire target population would give their consent. Involves deception
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Retrospective Consent
Once the true nature of the experiment has been revealed, the participant has the right to withdraw.
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Breifing/Debriefing
Relevant details of the study need to be explained to the participants before and after the study. Debrief is important if deception was used.Participants should be in the same mental and physical state when they leave.
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Protection of Participants
May be necessary to cause distress to answer important questions. It is difficult to predict the outcome so the participants protection is hard to gurantee. Distress is acceptable if it is no more than what they would have in everyday life.
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Physical Harm
Experience some signs of stress and anxiety such as sweating, clenching, digging nails into palms.
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Psychological Harm
If the study has an impact on any aspect of their character or personality it is classed as psycholoically damaging.
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Right to Withdraw
Should be allowed to withdraw if they feel uncomfortable or distressed. Important if they have been decieved. If participants are paid then they feel as thoug they can't withdraw. With children, crying is a sign that they want to withdraw.
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Confidentiality/Anonymity
Participants data should not be disclosed to anyone else unless agreed with the participant in advance. Participant numbers should be used instead of names and names shouldn't be published. Anonymous data can't be traced to names but confidential can
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Observational Research
Observations are only made in public places where people expect to be observed by strangers, e.g. interviews, school, work.
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Incentives to Take Part
Researchers should not offer bribes or promised rewards to their participants because they feel as though they can't withdraw and only certain people will take part to be paid so results will be bias.
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Peer Review
Assessment of scientific work by other specialists in the same field to ensure that research intended for publication is a high quality.
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Single Blind Review
Names of the reviewer are not revealed to the researcher. This allows for an unbiased review free from interference from the researcher. This may delay the review process as they may take that persons research and use it as their own.
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Double Blind Review
The researcher and reviewer are anonymous. Researcher bias will not occur and research will be peer reviewed fairly and not based on the reasearchers fame or lack of fame. Researcher may be identified by writing style.
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Open Review
Researcher and reviewer are both known to each other. Reduces the risk of personal comments and plagarism and encourages open, honest peer reviewing. Criticism may not be that harsh due to politness or fear of retribution from famous researchers.
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Card 2

Front

Conducted in a more natural real world environment. The experimenter deliberately manipulates the independent variable and measures the dependent variable which is usually quantitative data. Some extraneous variables are controlled.

Back

Field Experiments

Card 3

Front

The most natural type of experiment where the experimenter has no control over the independent variable. The experimenter measures the dependent variable and has no control over the extraneous variables.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The IV varies naturally, for example the effect of poverty on mental health.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The IV occurs naturally, for example gender (males and females occur naturally).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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