Relationships Studies

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Argyle et al.
comparison of relationships in different cultures found similarities but no support that gift exchange is more important in Japan than the Uk
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Toomey (1986)
found reciprocity in individualistic societies is voluntary BUT in collectivist cultures reciprocity is obligatory. In Japan failure to return the benefit is considered gross moral duty failure.
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Epstein (2002)
low divorce rates for arranged marriages, claim to have fallen in love.
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Moghaddan et al. (1993)
found individual interests are with freedom and choice. Collectivisation leads to relationships being more about family concerns. Parents in a better position to judge compatibility.
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Buss (1989)
10,000 males and females from 37 cultures. Looked at what they looked for in partners. Women desire resources and males prefer physical attractiveness.
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Miller et al. (2007)
found girls in oestrus stages earned double tips. This shows fertility is very important.
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Clarke and Hatfield (1989)
conducted a study where attractive males and female experimenters approached strangers on a college campus. 50% would go on a date. 6% females would go back to apartment. 0% females would have sex compared to 75% of males, shows males have ST mating.
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Stafford and Canary (2006)
200 couples completed measures of equity and relationship satisfaction. Satisfaction highest for spouses who perceived their relationship would be fair.
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Duck (2001)
found three factors in breakdown, prexisiting doom (incompatibility), mechanical failure (unable to live together) and sudden death (betrayal)
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Peplau (1982)
3 factors less common in lesbians and gays
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Lee (1984)
5 stages of breakdown
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Duck (1982)
theory of relationship dissolution
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Thibault and Kelley (1959)
social exchange theory
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Rusbult
questionnaire for 7 months, found 3 reasons for satisfaction, careful weighing of costs and rewards, consideration of investment and any attractive alternatives.
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Mublain
Matching hypothesis, engaged couples photos rated similar to their partners. Shows equality and similarity key in a relationship.
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Walster et al.
agrees with rewards and costs theories in that relationships should be fair.
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Anderson
men do not discriminate between the step kids and kids financially. Cuckoldry not such an issue in modern society.
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Buss et al. (1992)
male students more distressed when imagining sexual infidelity, females more emotional when imagining emotional infidelity
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Dunbar (1995)
female investment greater than male. Males want successful mating.
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Buss (1995)
sexual jealousy evolved as a solution to infidelity.
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Walster
undergraduates found social effect of attractiveness physically to be greatest factor. Asked for 2nd date.
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Clone et al.
proposes you would marry people with similar traits.
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Graber et al.
students who filtered through the first filter are more likely to have a relationship.
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Davis et al.
relationships develop through different filters.
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Clone et al.
we all seek positive stimuli in relationships, thus the reward-need model
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May and Hamilton (1970)
female students rated how they liked the look of male students. No music, unpleasant, or pleasant music played. Highest rated photos came from the photos accompanied with the pleasant music.
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Shaver et al.
claims the experience we have in a romantic relationship is structured on the basis of 3 behavioural systems, attachment, caregiving and sexuality systems.
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Kirkpatrick and Hazan
found break ups associated with shift from secure to insecure attachment.
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Qualter and Munn
children learn from experiences with other children. Determines own set of values and how they approach adult relationships.
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Nargle et al.
childhood friendships preparation for adult relationships. E.g. intimacy, secrets and sharing.
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Richard et al.
girl friendships more intimate, boys more competitive. Attachment type has no effect.
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Card 2

Front

found reciprocity in individualistic societies is voluntary BUT in collectivist cultures reciprocity is obligatory. In Japan failure to return the benefit is considered gross moral duty failure.

Back

Toomey (1986)

Card 3

Front

low divorce rates for arranged marriages, claim to have fallen in love.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

found individual interests are with freedom and choice. Collectivisation leads to relationships being more about family concerns. Parents in a better position to judge compatibility.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

10,000 males and females from 37 cultures. Looked at what they looked for in partners. Women desire resources and males prefer physical attractiveness.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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