Reicher and Haslan

Revisiting previous study by Zimbardo which had to be terminated due to extreme behaviour. Zimbardo suggests guard's aggression was adoption of expected behaviour of role, R&H disagree and think it was more to do with instructions given by Zimbardo.
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What year was the study conducted?
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Reicher and Haslam attempted to create an institution to investigate the behaviour of groups that were unequal in terms of power, status and resources.
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Initial pool of 332 applicants reduced down to 27 men. Final sample of 15 chosen, then randomly divided into two groups - 5 guards & 10 prisoners. All Ps were normal, decent, well adjusted individuals. Recruited by advertisement in national press.
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Design, method and data?
Independent measures design, experimental case study, both types of data.
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Elstree Film Studios in North London, prison set up just for experiment.
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IV & DV?
IV= Guard/Prisoner and interventions DV= Quantitative data collected from psychometric tests and cortisol levels plus comments.
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Procedure (1)
Study monitored throughout by ethics committee and by individual psychologists. Study designed to create a hierarchical society in which people could live for up to 10 days. Prisoners were allocated lockable 3-person cells.
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Procedure (2)
A lockable mesh gate separated Gs & Ps. Ps could be video and audio recorded everywhere. Daily psychometric testing was essential - included q's on social, organisational and clinical variables. Daily saliva swabs taken to measure cortisol levels.
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Procedure (3)
Gs told it was up to them to make institution ran smoothly and prisoners performed their tasks; they were asked to draw up a set of punishments for rule violations, given no guidance, but told physical violence would not be tolerated.
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Procedure (4)
Day 1- Guards taken in blacked out van to prison, then briefed on layout of prison and resources available - had keys to all doors in prison, surveillance, snacks and cigarettes and had ability to put Ps on bread&water diet.
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Procedure (5)
9/10 participants arrived at same time with heads shaved, had clothes taken away and forced to shower. They had to wear uniforms.
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What were the 3 planned interventions?
Permeability, legitimacy and cognitive alternatives.
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Procedure (6)
Guards told to monitor Ps to see if anyone showed qualities of being guard as provision for promotion on day 3 - this was announced to Ps over loudspeaker which made remaining Ps think it was possible to move groups. Possibility was removed later.
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Procedure (7)
On day 4, new prisoner was introduced. Picked for the role because of his background as an experienced trade union officer - R&H thought he would be enable Ps to envisage the achievement of a more equal set of social relations.
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What year was the study conducted?



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Design, method and data?


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