Psychology core studies; approaches and perspectives

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  • Created by: DJ95
  • Created on: 11-02-14 08:46
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  • Psychology core studies; approaches and perspectives
    • Social
      • Milgram
        • Test of Obedience when in demand from authorty figure
      • Piliavin et al
        • Social influence on decision making-Diffusion of responsibility
      • Reicher and Haslan
        • Social identity influences behaviour- Prison study from Zibardo
      • Studying individuals within a group and social context
        • Strengths- behaviour determined by situations; use range of methods; collect quan/qual data
        • Weaknesses- lab based so lack EV; Field based, difficult to control extraneous Vs, so cause and effect cant be drawn; Reductionist
    • Cognitive
      • Savage Rumbaugh
        • Pigmychimps against normal chimp-symbol to spoken Eng, symbol to speech synthesiser
      • Baron-Cohen
        • Autism and AS, Tested with Tourettes
      • Loftus and Palmer
        • Effect of leading questions on memoryof event
      • Studies mental process; memory perceotion, thinking an dlanguage
      • Strengths: all use lab exp. Helps understand cog' processes and how they shape behaviour
      • Weaknesses: mental process difficult to test; reductionist
    • Developmental
      • Freud
        • Case study of Little Hans and his phobia of horses
      • Bandura et al
        • Transmission of aggression
      • Samuel and Bryant
        • Conservation of mass, volume and
      • Strengths: development of humans, useful for education purposes; helps explain and aparently abnormal behaviour in children
      • Weakness: Reductionist, assumes all chiildren are the same, ignores individual differnces; ethics (deception, potential harm)
    • Physiological
      • Sperry
        • Hemisphere deconnection; left=language right=creativity
      • Maguire
        • 16mTDs passed the knowledge and at least 18month exp,
      • Dement and Kleitman
        • Relation of eye movement to sleep
        • 7m/2f; 5studied intensively
      • Relationship between biological makeup and human behaviour; brain NS and hormones
      • Strengths: use of sophisticated equipment; Practical application to develop treatments and therapies
      • Weaknesses: lack validity; reductionist; small samples
    • Psychodynamic
      • Freud
      • Thigpen and Cleckley
      • Influenced by drives and conflicts in unconscious mind
      • Strengths: suggests cause+treatments for mental disorders; case studies=qual data
      • Weaknesses: small restricted samples; based on concepts difficult to test and interpret, may be subjective
    • Behaviourist
      • Bandura et al
      • Milgram
      • effect of environment on behaviour- nurture
      • Strengths: usefuls, understand effect of environment on bevaiour; lab=reliable
      • Weaknesses: lack EV; use of animals; reductionist (ignores unconscious mind
      • Savage Rumbaugh
    • Individual Differences
      • Rosenhan
        • Sane in insane places
          • 12 hospitals, 8 pseudopatients
            • 'schizophrenia in remission'
      • Thigpen and Cleckley
        • Multiple personality disorder
        • EEG- measures eletrical activity of brain and frequency of brain waves
      • Griffiths
        • Gambling
          • 60ps 29m/1f RG; 15m/15f NRG
        • Cog' behavioural therapy could be useful with addicted gamblers
      • Understands complexity of human behaviour and so studies difference between people
      • Personality is a hypothetical contruct; can never be observed; can only infer personality forms behaviour
      • Strengths: treatment of mental health problems; dev'and use of psychometric tests to measure personality and intelligence

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