Radioactivity

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All substance are made of?
Atoms
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The nucleus consists of?
Protons and Neutrons
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What happens if the nucelus become unstable?
In some types of atom, the nucleus is unstable, and will decay into a more stable atom. This radioactive decay is completely spontaneous.
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What happens to atom has it decays?
The atom emits radiation with large unstable nuceli that contains too many Protons and neutrons
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What is background Radiation?
Background radiation is all around us. Some of it comes from natural sources and some comes from artificial sources.
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What type of neclei have?
Large unstable neculi with too many neutons and protons
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atural sources of background radiation include?
Cosmic rays - radiation that reaches the Earth from space Rocks and soil - some rocks are radioactive and give off radioactive radon gas Living things - plants absorb radioactive materials from the soil
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What is Carbon14? Where is it found?
It is a type of background radiation and is a carbon found inside all living organsims
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What rock is radon gas emitted from?
Granite
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Measured traces of pottassium is also a source of background radiation? What is a food that contains potassium?
Banana
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What is the radius of an atom
1x10-10m
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What are the three types of radiation emmiteed from radiocative neculi?
Alpha, Beta, Gamma
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How many protons and neutrons make up Alpha?
Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. This means that they have a charge of +2, and a mass of 4
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Give a description of Alpha Particles
Alpha particles are relatively slow and heavy.
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They have a low penetrating power - you can stop them with....?
A sheet of paper
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Because they have a large charge, alpha particles do what with other atoms?
ionise other atoms strongly.
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What charge does a Beta particle have?
minus one
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Descibe a beta particle in terms of size and movement?
They are fast, and light.
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Beta particles have a medium penetrating power. What are they stopped by?
- they are stopped by a sheet of aluminium or plastics such as perspex
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What different between gamma,beta and alpha radiation?
Gamma rays are waves, not particles.
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What effect does this have on the radiation if they are emitted as a wave?
no mass and no charge.
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Gamma rays have a high penetrating power? What stopped Gamma radiation?
it takes a thick sheet of metal such as lead, or concrete to reduce them significantly
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Gamma radiation is not a particle is it a what?
A burst of enegry transmitted as a wave
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What is the acitvity rate?
The rate at which the the source of the unstable neculi dacays?
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What is activity of a radioactive material measured in?
Bacquerels
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What is radioactivity measured with?
Griger muller
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What type process does radioactivuty occue
Random process
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What is the defition of half life?
This is the time taken for the radioactive material to fall to have of its orginal value
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The greater the half-life radioactive source, what effect does this have on the source?
It decays more slowly and so therefore becomes safer
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Why is a very long half life of a radioactive source unsafe?
Emits radiation over a longer period of time
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A radioactive material is not considerd safe if?
The activity level around is above the background radiation
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What happens when alpha, beta and gamma radiation collide with atoms?
To get hit out of their outer electrons knocking them out of orbit
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All atoms have what type of charge?
Neutral
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They have an equal number of?
Electrons and protons
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When electrons are knowcked out of their orbit the atoms becomes.....?
Postivitly charges as it as lost their negative charge
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What is a charged atoms called?
An ion
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What is the process called turning neutrala toms into charged atoms?
Ionisation
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What type of radiation is alpha beta and gamma?
ionisng radiation
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What can ahpa Particles penatrate through
Whilst they cannot penetrate your skin, you could easily eat or drink something contaminated with an source.
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What affect does alpha particle shave on the body?
This would put a source of alpha particles inside your body, wreaking havoc by ionising atoms in nearby cells-likely to mutate and multiply.
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What affect does Beta particles have on your skin and why?
they do have more penetrating power, which means that they can get through your skin and affect cells inside you.
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outside the body what two particles are the most dangerous?
Gamma and Beta
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Inside the body what partcile is the most dangerous
Alpha-most ioniong
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Why can gamma radiation or x-ray rays be used to kill cnacer cells?
Powerful x rays and gamma rays can target the tumour
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Why must the doseage me right?
There is is just enough to kill the cancer cells and not ebough to kill any healthy cells srrounding the tumour
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What is radioation called to kill cancer cells?
Radiotherapy
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Why is gamma radiation used to kill serlise and surgical instruments?
It will kill any bacteria, viruses or fungi found on them
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Gamma radiation can also be used to reat fresh fruit. What will the radition do?
It will kill any bacteria and fungi on the food stopping it from decaying
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What does this mean?
The food will stay fresher for longer-extending its shelft life
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The nucleus consists of?

Back

Protons and Neutrons

Card 3

Front

What happens if the nucelus become unstable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to atom has it decays?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is background Radiation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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