Racial and Ethnic Politics Flashcards

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The movement of moving schoolchildren between racial homogenous neighbourhoods -white suburbs and black inner cities- to create racially mixed schools in all neighbourhoods.
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A set-aside program to benefit previously disadvantaged minorities in such areas as higher education and employment. A certain percentage - quota- of places is reserved for the previously disadvantaged group. The SC found quotas unconstitutional in
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Affirmative Action?
A programme that gives previously disadvantaged minority groups a head start in areas such as higher education ad employment. It is also known as ‘positive discrimination’.
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People from many different cultures whose cultures and lifestyles differ, leading to diversity.
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Black Nationalism?
A social movement with many aims, many of which are centred around the creation of autonomy for black people in white society. It attempts to achieve meaningful equality in a predominantly white US society as its power structure will always disadvant
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Civil Rights Movement?
The mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the mid 1950’s. It was not until 1965 that the Civil Rights Act was passed in law.
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Jim Crow Laws?
From 1880’s until 1960s a majority of US states passed laws that enforced segregation and discriminated against Blacks. They were first contested in [Plessy v Fergusson] and then in [Brown v Board of Education]. However no laws were passed until 1964
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Civil Liberties?
Protect people from interference from government.
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Civil Rights?
protect people against discrimination.
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Mismatch Theory?
The theory that preferences often place students in environments where they can neither learn nor compete effectively. These racial preference policies often reinforce stereotypes and stigmatise minorities.
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Example of mismatch theory?
For example about half of black students rank in the bottom 20% of their classes, and bottom 10% in law school.
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Proposition 209?
banned preferences helped to combat mismatch theory. Despite drop in minority students, it produced better matched students, e.g. black graduation rate at UCLA doubles. Also strong black and latino students accepted the offers at higher rates.
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Example of success of proposition 209?
Despite drop in minority students, it produced better matched students, e.g. black graduation rate at UCLA doubles. Also strong black and latino students accepted the offers at higher rates and reduced failure/drop out rates. B
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Black population comparison?
In 1964, only 10.8% population was black. In 2013 it rose to 13.2%.
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Hispanic population comparison?
In 1970, hispanics made up 4.7% of the population but it rose to 17.2% in 2013.
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Asian population comparison?
In 1960, only 0.5% were Asian, now there are 5.3%.
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Racial diversity variances in Vermont, Hawaii, Mississippi, Montana?
Racial diversity varies in each state, in Vermont, 95% is white, compared to Hawaii where only 24% white, Mississippi 37% white, while Montana is just 0.4% Black.
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Hispanic population growth?
Hispanic population grew by 43% between 2000 and 2010. Blacks grew by 12% during the same period.
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Martin Luther King?
After Rosa Parks’ arrest, he came to national prominence and was a leading figure in organising the boycott by African Americans of busses in Montgomery.
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What did MLK do?
established the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in order to coordinate civil rights activity across the region, launched Birmingham campaign, 'I had Dream' speech, Lead to civil rights Act 1964.
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Shirley Chisholme?
Was a black civil rights campaigner from NYC. She was the first Black congresswoman to be elected in 1968. Ran for Democratic nomination in 1972.
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Jesse Jackson?
An American civil rights activist. He was a candidate for the Democratic party nomination in 1972.
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What did Jesse Jackson do?
eaded SCLS’s economic arm, encouraging massive boycotts by black consumers as a means to pressure white-business owners to hire blacks and to buy and purchase goods/services from black owned companies.
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What was rainbow coalition?
Rainbow coalition that was a product of a social justice movement that grew out of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's (SCLC) Operation Breadbasket. Operation Breadbasket combined theology and social justice.
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Kewisi Mfume?
In 1996, Mfume left his seat in congress to become NAACP president. After 1 year, Mfume had erased the NAACP’s $4.5 million debt.
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In 1992, Obama directed Illinois’ Project Vote, this achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state. Became first Black president of US i 2008. Since has has aimed to end racial profiling
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Malcolm X?
African American leader and prominent figure in a nation of Islam. He articulated concepts of race pride in the early 1960’s.
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What did Malcolm X do?
Preached at universities such as Harvard and Oxford and critiqued mainstream civil rights movement and said that the main issues were black identity, integrity and independence. He helped change the term ‘*****’ to ‘black’.
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Civil Rights Act?
ECOC enforces the civil rights act, along with subsequent legislation such as Civil Rights Act 1991, Rehabilitation Act 1973 and the 1972 Education Act.
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Voting Rights Act 1965?
Outlawed literacy tests and poll taxes as a way of assessing whether anyone could vote. By the end of 1966, only 4 out of 13 southern states had less than 50% of African Americans registered to vote.
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What act was passed in 1968?
In 1968 another act was passed that prohibited racial discrimination in the sale/rental of homes.
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Nixon and Civil Rights?
In first 3 years of Nixon's office, the proportion of southern black students attending integrated schools rose from 32% to 77%. Funding for civil rights agencies increased.
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What was the Philadelphia Plan under Nixon?
Philadelphia Plan required construction contractors to hire specific numbers of minority workers. However this plan was abandoned in 1972.
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[Brown v Board of Education] 1954 -
Segregation in schools unconstitutional, overruled [Plessy v Fergusson].
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[University of California v Bakke] 1978
Upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admissions.
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[Adarand Construction v Pena] 1995 -
Racial classifications must imposed by federal government must be under strict scrutiny. Allowed financial incentives for ‘disadvantaged’ businesses, e.g. those run by women/blacks.
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California Proposition 209 (1997) -
Prohibited public institutions from discriminating on the basis of sex, race or ethnicity.
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[Gratz v Bollinger] 2003 -
Held that affirmative action was unconstitutional in college admissions.
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[Grutter v Bollinger] 2003 -
Overruled previous case and said that the admission policy was constitutional. Bader Ginsburg said that affirmative action will only be needed for another 25 years.
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[Fisher v University of Texas] 2003 -
can continue using affirmative action in admission policies.
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[Parents Involved in Community Schools v Seattle] 2007 -
Affirmative action was legal in application process.
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[Meredith v Jefferson] 2007 -
Affirmative action in school admission was held to be unconstitutional.
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[North West Austin v Hodder] 2009 -
the case was whether the Voting Rights Act could be applied to areas of equality. It ruled that states with a history of equality were exempt.
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[Shelby County v Holder] 2013 -
Struck down a section of the Voting Rights Act that required states to get approval from federal government before changing voting system. It was ruled that the act imposes burdens and cannot be justified any longer.
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How likely are black children to live in poverty?
3x more likely.
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Black unemployment rates?
Double unemployment for whites.
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Latino drop out rate?
Highest in 2005.
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Black wages?
Average wage in US is $55,012. But for blacks just $34,751. Female Latinos earn the least out of all races. Asians earn most.
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Strategies of getting equality?
Equal opportunity strategy, civil rights strategy, affirmative action strategy.
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What is equal opportunity strategy?
Abandon race-based preferences and provide expanded public support for those who are disadvantaged regardless of race, such as additional assistance for poor, single mothers.
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Arguments for equal opportunity strategy?
Racial discrimination doesn't account for most of the inequities in American life today. The largest factor is lack of resources. The main beneficiaries of affirmative action programs are middle-class minorities who do not need preferential treatment
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Arguments Against equal opportunity strategy?
Racial minorities still need and deserve special consideration because of the obstacles they have experienced. It is not sufficient to promise a new round of anti-poverty efforts. Racial minorities need specially tailored remedies.
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Civil Rights Strategy?
Put the promise of equal rights into practice by enforcing the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act, and laws that prohibit discrimination in housing. Prohibit segregation by taking legal action.
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Party policy to support equal opportunity strategy?
The R party supports reforming the immigration system so it is legal and safe by tightening security.
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Arguments for civil rights strategy?
Under the Constitution the best way to help racial minorities is by adhering to the principle of equality under the law. The civil rights laws protect the rights of minorities. As long as those laws are consistently enforced, no other measures needed
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Arguments against civil rights strategy?
Most discrimination is subtle. Laws guaranteeing equal rights cannot compensate for the advantages whites gained over a period of more than 300 years of preferential treatment. To achieve the goal of racial equality, need more than a legal watchdog.
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Party and Policy supporting civil rights strategy?
Obamacare was considered a way to help end discrimination in terms of healthcare as it allows everyone to get health insurance. In 2014, Obama put forward an agenda to expand opportunity for all Americans, so everyone who works hard can get ahead.
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What did Obama sign into law to support civil rights strategy?
Obama signed an executive order that gave protection to gay and transgender employees from discrimination.
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What is the affirmative action strategy?
Insist on evidence of racial diversity, which often requires analysing numbers to determine whether racial balance has been achieved. Continue to use race as a consideration in university admissions decisions to correct racial imbalances.
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Arguments for affirmative action strategy?
Preferential treatment for racial minorities is needed because discrimination persists. Affirmative action works, significant gains over the past 20 years in minority employment.
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Arguments against affirmative action strategy?
Discriminatory barriers have largely broken down, so preferential treatment is no longer needed. The fundamental problem is the persistence of educational and economic disadvantage, not racial discrimination.
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Arguments for AA?
Greater diversity, rights previous wrongs, opens up new areas of education/employment that would not normally have been considered. Creates a diverse student body.
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Arguments against AA?
Preference for one group leads to a disadvantage for another. Programmes may be condescending to minorities. AA perpetrates a society based on colour and race. Focuses on groups as opposed to individuals.
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Minorities and exec - Robert Weaver 1966
secretary of the new department of housing and urban development. The first African American to be a member of the presidents cabinet. 16 other blacks have headed an executive dept since.
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Minorities and exec - Collin Powell 2001
appointed to top tier department when he was appointed as SOS by Bush. He was then succeeded by Condolezza Rice, then Clinton. However it is now done by Kerry.
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Minorites and exec - Clinton's cabinet?
Clinton’s first cabinet had 4 blacks. However in 2009, Obama’s cabinet was the most racially diverse. However Eric Holder was the only black to head an executive department during Obama’s first term.
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Minorites and presidential elections - first candidates?
The first candidates for federal and state government stood for the D party. In 1972 Shirley Chisholm became the first major party black to run in the primaries. In 1984 Jesse Jackson put himself forward ad won 3 million votes, putting him third.
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Obama and the Black vote?
95% of blacks voted for Obama in his election. Hispanic votes are significant in swing states such as Florida and New Mexico. R party lost support in 2012 and 2008 possibly due to their tough stance on immigration.
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Minorites and state and local gov? Douglas Wilder
In 1990 Douglas Wilder became first black as a state governor (Virginia) In 2012, blacks made up 8% of state legislatures. However the legislatures of 9 states had no blacks represented (including Hawaii).
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State legislatures diversity?
The states with the highest proportion of blacks in state legislature generally have the highest percentage of black citizens. E.g. Mississippi as 37% black population and 21% blacks in state legislature.
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First black mayor of big city?
In 1967, carl Stokes became the first black mayor of a major city (Cleveland).
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Minorities and the Judiciary? Johnson?
ohnson appointed the first black member of the SC, Thurgood Marshall in 1967. When he retired in 1991 he was replaced by Clarence Thomas. In 2009 Sonia Sotomayor became first hispanic justice.
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ABA research?
The ABA found that 83% of all US judges were white, compared to 75% of the population and 89% of all lawyers were white.
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Carter and judge diversity?
Carter made a break through in appointing minority judges, with 20% being minorities. Clinton appointed over 47% of judges and over a fifth were minorities. Obama’s appointments were the most diverse with 18% black, 12% hispanic and 7% asian.
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Minorities in congress?
In 1984 there were 21 blacks in congress, by 2013 there were 42. In 2013 there was 34 hispanics in congress compared to 10 in 1984. There is now the first buddhist senator. 5 Asians.
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Obamas 2008 immigration proposals?
Secure boarders, action against employers who hire illegal immigrants, ease path for skilled to gain citizenship, fine immigrants and take them out of the shadows, passage of dream act.
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A set-aside program to benefit previously disadvantaged minorities in such areas as higher education and employment. A certain percentage - quota- of places is reserved for the previously disadvantaged group. The SC found quotas unconstitutional in

Card 3


Affirmative Action?


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Card 4




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Card 5


Black Nationalism?


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