This can be defined as deviation from social norms.
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Deviation from social norms
All societies have standards but cultures vary so there isn't a universal code.
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Limitations of social norms (2)
1) Can be used to justify the removal of 'unwanted' people. 2) Social norms can change over time.
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Statistical Deviation
Can be seen on a bell curve graph with the highest point representing 'average' behaviour.
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Limitations of statistical deviation (2)
1) Doesn't account for desirability. 2) No distinct cut-off point.
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Failure to function adequately
Dysfunctional behaviour. Observer Comfort. Unpredictable Behaviour. Irrational Behaviour. Personal Distress.
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Who came up with six conditions associated with ideal mental health?
Jahoda (1958)
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What are these six conditions?
Positive Self-Attitude. Self- actualisation. Resistance to Stress. Personal Autonomy. Accurate Perception of Reality. Adaptation to the Environment.
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What is depression?
Depression is a mood disorder which affects perceptions, thinking and behaviour. It can be split in major or manic depression.
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Clinical Characteristics of Depression (3)
1)Change in appetite 2) Negative view of self 3) Extreme feelings or sadness and despair.
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What are phobias?
Phobias are an example of an anxiety disorder. It is an extreme, irrational fear of a specific object or situation.
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Clinical Characteristics of Phobias (3)
1) Avoiding social situations 2) Activation of fight or flight response 3) Anxiety and feeling of dread.
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What is OCD?
Obsessions are unwanted, intrusive thoughts that trigger intensely distressing feeling. Compulsions are physical or mental repetitive actions.
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What are the types of OCD behaviours? (4)
1) Checking 2) Contamination 3) Hoarding 4) Symmetry or orderliness.
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What is the cognitive approach?
This assumes that behaviours are controlled by thoughts and beliefs.
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What is Ellis' ABC model?
This explains how disorders begin. There is an Activating event, leading to a Belief and this leads to a Consequence.
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What is Beck's negative triad?
These are automatic thoughts linked to depression. Negative views about themselves, the world, the future.
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Strengths of the cognitive explanation for depression (2)
1) Considers the role of thoughts and beliefs 2) Cognitive therapies have successful treated depression.
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Weaknesses of the cognitive explanation for depression (2)
1) Faulty cognition could be consequence not cause. 2) The person could believe they are to blame.
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What is cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)?
This aims to identify and change the patients faulty cognitions.
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How does CBT work?
The therapist will help identify faulty cognitions and see that they aren't true. They will then set goals to think in more positive ways.
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Advantages of CBT (3)
1) Empowers patients 2) Holen et al- people are less likely to relapse than with drug therapy 3) Brandsma et al- helpful for people who put pressure on themselves.
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Disadvantages of CBT (3)
1) Take and long time and costly 2)Person feels blame 3) People with less experienced therapists would do better with drug therapy.
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What do behaviourists believe about phobias?
They believe phobias are learnt through classical and operant conditioning.
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Classical Conditioning - producing the phobia
Phobias can be created when the natural fear is associated with a particular stimuli.
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Operant Conditioning - maintaining the phobia
This is learning from the consequences of an action.
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What is systematic desensitisation?
This is counter-conditioning so that people associate phobic stimulus with relaxation.
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What are the the steps involved in SD?
1) Make fear hierarchy 2) Taught relaxation techniques 3) Work through each fear until calm through most feared event.
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What is flooding?
This involves exposing the patient to the phobic stimulus straight away until the anxiety has worn off.
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Advantages of these techniques (2)
1) Behavioural therapy is very effective for treating specific phobias- SD 2) Works very quickly and 90% felt anxiety reduce after one session.
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Disadvantages of these techniques (2)
1) Ethical issues surrounding flooding. 2) Treat symptoms but don't tackle cause.
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What is the biological approach?
This assumes that psychological disorders are physical illnesses with physical causes.
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Why do some people believe genetic factors cause OCD?
When looking at OCD there are often multiple family members who are sufferers which could suggest that there are OCD 'genes'.
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Evidence for genetic factors (2)
1) Billet et al- meta-analysis of twin studies and found it identical twins 68% of the time both twins had it compared to 31% for non- identical twins.
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Evidence against genetic factors (2)
1) No study shows 100% concordance rate 2) Concordance rates wouldn't prove OCD is caused by genetics but that general anxiety is.
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Why do some people believe biochemical factors cause OCD?
This is because PET scans have shown that levels of neurotransmitter serotonin are lower in OCD sufferers.
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Evidence for biochemical factors (2)
1) Insel- SSRIs ,which increase levels of serotonin, reduce symptoms by 50-60%. 2) Zohar- alleviate symptoms in 60% of people.
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Evidence against biochemical factors (2)
1) SSRIs don't offer relief to 100% of people. 2) There's a correlation but doesn't show cause and effect.
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Why do some people believe neurological factors cause OCD?
This is because PET scans have found that abnormality in the basal ganglia in the brain is linked to OCD.
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Evidence for neurological factors (2)
1) Researchers have found increased activity in the basal ganglia during OCD related thoughts. 2) OCD is often found with other diseases which involve the basal ganglia e.g. Parkinsons
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Evidence against neurological factors (2)
1) Aylward et al- didn't find significant difference in basal ganglia impairment between sufferers and control. 2) Basal ganglia damage isn't found in 100% of sufferers.
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Strengths of biological explanation for OCD (2)
1) It has a scientific basis in biology with correlations. 2) Twin studies have shown genetics have some effect.
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Weaknesses of biological explanation for OCD (2)
1) Doesn't take into account environment, childhood influences and social influences. 2) Biological therapies= ethical concerns as drugs can produce addictions and only suppress symptoms.
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Can OCD be treated with drug therapy?
The biological approach to treating OCD involves drug therapy.
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Advantages of using drug therapy (2)
1) Thoren et al- SSRIs reduce obsessional thoughts. 2) Other antidepressants that don't include SSRIs are often ineffective.
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Disadvantages to using drug therapy (2)
1) SSRIs can take several weeks to work. 2) Side effects include nausea, headaches and sometimes anxiety causing people to stop using them.
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Card 2


Deviation from social norms


All societies have standards but cultures vary so there isn't a universal code.

Card 3


Limitations of social norms (2)


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Card 4


Statistical Deviation


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Card 5


Limitations of statistical deviation (2)


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