Psychoogy unit 1; memory, attachment and reseach methods

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Sensory Memory- Sperling
3 rowas of 4 letters, 50ms; 4/5 remembered, when associated with a tone, 3 letters per row remembered, whole image array fades during recall, sensory memory stored for less than 2 second. Multile stores for multiple senses
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STM Capacity-Jacobs
STM capacity 9.3 items using lists of digits and digit span technique
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STM Capacity-Miller
STM capacity 7+- 2 items
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STM Capacity-Simon
STM capacity Depends on chunk size
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STM Capacity-Conrad
STM Capacity- affected by LTM and not pure STM- and STM is 4 chunks
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STM duration- Peterson and Peterson, info disappears from STM very rapidly
3 consonant trigrams with delay interval counting backwards in 3's to prevent LTM at 3seconds interval = 80% recall and 18seconds interval = 10% recall
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STM Encoding primarily Acoustic-Conrad
6 consonant letter strings, acoustically similar or dissimilar, visually presented information must be converted to acoustic code which is why there is problems with the acoustically similar letters.
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STM Encoding-Baddeley
Found problems recalling acoustically similar words
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LTM Capacity
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LTM Duration, Bahrick et al, few minutes to a lifetime
392 high school graduates recognising classmates, matching name to a picture, name recall with no picture, performance good up to 34 years after- better at recognition then recall, after 47 drop in performance on all tasks due to ageing brains
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LTM Encoding predominantly semantic
Baddeley, lists of words, either acoustically similar/dissimilar or semantically similar/dissimilar 20 minute delay to ensure LTM, more confusion with semantically similar words
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LTM and STM Separate Stores-Serial position Curve
Primary effect and recency effect
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LTM and STM Separate Stores-Glanzer and Cunitz
List of words with a delay before recall, primary effect still there, recency effect disrupted by distracter task
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LTM and STM Separate Stores- Milner Patient HM
Damaged LTM, fine STM
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LTM and STM Separate Stores- Shallice and Warrington Patient KF
LTM fine, Damaged STM
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LTM and STM Separate Stores- Drachman and Sahakian
Blocking Acetlycholine (Neurotransmitter) impedes LTM but not STM
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LTM and STM Separate Stores- Squire et al
STM tasks pre-frontal cortex active LTM tasks Hippocampus is active
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Attkinson and Shiffrin Multi-store model advantages
Systematic based on a variety of sources, 3 distinguished separate stores, predictions can be tested
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Attkinson and Shiffrin Multi-store model disadvantages
STM, a single store- KF' STM problems were mainly verbal but his visual STM was fine, suggests more than one store for STM
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Attkinson and Shiffrin Multi-store model disadvantages
Only one LTM store, Claparede- patient had a fine implicit LTM but damamged Explicit LTM
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Attkinson and Shiffrin Multi-store model disadvantages
Logie; Doesn't show LTM affecting STM, to be able to chunk information, information from LTM must be drawn upon
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Attkinson and Shiffrin Multi-store model disadvantages
LTM can only be accessed via STM- Patient KF
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Working Memory Model, Central Executive
Allocates attention to incoming information, directs the slave systems , coordinates retrieval from LTM
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Central Executive evidence
Baddeley, single task, generating random number strings, dual task- generating random number strings as well as reciting the alphabet with corresponding numbers. Numbers became less random in dual task as tasks were competing for central executive.
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Working Memory Model, Episodic Buffer
Integrates info from central executive and slave systems holds acoustic and visual information
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Episodic Buffer evidence
Immediate recall for words is better when they form sentences rather than unrelated words, uses store to draw info from LTM to link words Puffer
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Working Memory model, Phonological Loop
Holds verbal material in speech form. Phonological store- holds words that are heard. Articulary process words that are seen, words looped like an inner voice
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Phonological Loop evidence
5 words either 1 syllable or 5 syllables better memory for shorter words, phonological loop capacity determined by length of time it takes to say words rather than number of items 1.5-2 seconds Baddeley et al.
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Working Memory Model- Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Deals with Visual and spatial coding, Visual cache=visual store, Inner Scribe=spatial relations and rehearsal system
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Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Evidence
Baddeley Grant and Thompson ps tracked a moving light whilst describing angles on a letter or whilst doing a verbal task. Tracking light was harder with angles as both use the sketchpad
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Working Memory Strengths
STM not a single store, can be applied to real life
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Working Memory Weaknesses
Central Executive not really explained or understood, Also CE isnt a single store Eslinger et al patient EVR had a tumour removed good resoning skills but poor decision skills suggests fine and poor central executive, Berz- fails to account for music
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Eyewitness Testimonies
Rattner 205 cases of wrongful arrests 52% due to mistaken EWT
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Effect of anxiety on EWT Loftus and Burns
Loftus and Burns Boy shot not shot
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Effect of anxiety on EWT Loftus
Loftus- weapon focus 49% identified pen, 33% identified knife
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Effect of anxiety on EWT Christian and Hubinette
Christian and Hubinette victims rather than onlookers had better memory evern after 15 months disprooves Loftus
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Effect of age on EWT Parker and Carranza
Shown mock crime Children more likely to just pick someone
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Effect of age on EWT Flin et al
Asked after an incident Children no difference to adults after a day, after 5 months children significantly forgot
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Effect of age on EWT Poole and Lindsey
Science demonstration childrem forgot source of information
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Effect of age on EWT Yarmey
Staged Event 80% of older adults failed to mention attacker had a knife compared to 20% of young adults
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Effect of age on EWT Cohen and Faulkner
Film of kidnapping then story of same kidnapping Older ps more susceptible to misleading information
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Effect of age on EWT Yarmey
Asked about a woman who had talked to them 15 seconds before Older adults less confident about recall but no signnificant differences found
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Effect of age on EWT Memon et al
Witnessed and event No difference straight away but after a long delay older participants worse
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Effect of Saliency on EWT Loftus
Loftus theft of red purse, 98% recalled colour correctly with immediate recall after being red a story where purse was brown only 2 got it wrong ps less likely to be misled when misinformation concerned important detail of scene
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Effect of Saliency on EWT tomes and Katz
People more likely to accept misinformation have generally poor recall of the event
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Misleading information Loftus and Palmer
Ps shown a film of a car crash when asked to suggest speed they predicted a faster speed when asked with more violent words
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Misleading information Loftus and Palmer
Asked if they saw non existent glass smashed, if more violent words used to ask then more likely to think they saw broken glass
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Misleading information Loftus and Zanni
See THE broken headlight-17% thought they did, see A broken headlight- 7% thought they did
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Cognitive interview Geiselman et al
4 principles of CI- context reinstatement, Report everything, Recall from changed perspective Recall in reverse order
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Cognitive Interview Fisher et al
Minimisation of distractions, actively listen to witness, ask open ended questions, pause after each answer, avoid interuptions and avoid judgement
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Cognitive Interview Geiselman
Yields more information than standard police interview and hypnosis
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Cognitive Interview Koehnken et al
Yeilded more information but also more incorrect information
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Improving EWT in children
Children retain information in visual form, Gross and Hayne chocolate factory 1 day and 6 months if asked to produce drawings remembered 30% more
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Improving EWT in Adults
Eysenck adults memories easily affected by misleading information ensure they're not exposed to any
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Police reconstructions
Have to be exact or may lead to misleading information Rice and Haralambos
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Rice and Haralambos bus driver better recall
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Orne et al hypnosis has no evidence it aids memory recall
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Putnam ps more susceptible to misleading information when hypnotised
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encourage people to concentrate and attend to information
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Verbal Mnemonics
Rhymes, Acronyms, Acrostics and chunking
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Visual Mnemonics
Method of Loci, Mind maps, Keyword method
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How Mnemonics work
Make associations and organise data, process of association is accelerated
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Memory is better the more that retrieval context is like encoding context
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Geiselman et al
Ps imagined someone reading them a list of words half male and half female, ps then read lists of words and had to say which one they recognised if person reading matched gender of imagined person recall was better
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Retrieval more accurate when tested in same room with same examiner
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Godden and Baddeley
Learned words on land or underwater and memory was better with same context
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Jerabek et al
Imagining encoding environment aids recall
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Goodwin et al
Information encoded when drunk more likely remembered when drunk
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Recall improved when mood at encoding matches mood at recall stronger for positive moods rather than negative.
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Card 2


STM Capacity-Jacobs


STM capacity 9.3 items using lists of digits and digit span technique

Card 3


STM Capacity-Miller


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Card 4


STM Capacity-Simon


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Card 5


STM Capacity-Conrad


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