Psychology - Maguire

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What was the Background of Maguires study based on with Brain Plasicity?
The idea of brain plasticity, the ability for the brain to change structure in response to experiences of the body.
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What was the Background of Maguires study based on with the Hippocampus?
Previous research has showed the hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory.
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What is the anterior and posterior hippocampus?
Anterior is used in learning about new environments, Posterior is used when recalling previously learnt information
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What was the aim of Maguire?
To investigate the differences in brains of London taxi drivers and a control of non taxi-drivers in relation to the volume of the hippocampus.
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Give three of five characteristics of the sample
1. 16 males. 2. London taxi drivers. 3. Mean age is 44 years old. 4. Licensed drivers for at least 1.5 years. 5. No medical, neurological or physiological health problems 6. All right handed
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What were the 50 control participants used for and who were they?
They were right handed, prexisting MRI scans from the database with no health problems, all male and from ages 32-62
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What type of analysis is used and how?
Correlational analysis on the volume of the hippocampus and time spent as a taxi driver
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What type of research method was used
Quasi Experiment
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What type of Research Design was used and how?
Matched P's design on right handedness and age for control 16 and the 16 taxi drivers
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Explain briefly the procedure for Maguire
TD brains scared using MRI to look at structure. VBM used to measure grey matter volume to show volume of hippocampus. And pixel counting used to get measurement of areas of hippocampus.
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How did the MRI Scan work?
26 slices were taken, 24 were taken for analysis (6-posterior hippocampus, 6 - Anterior hippocampus, 12 - hippocampus body.) These scans were compared to the control 16 by the independent expert who was unaware of P's identities.
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What were two results from VBM Analysis?
1. Only two brain regions had increased grey matter, right and left hippocampi. 2. Larger posterior hippocampi in taxi drivers than control in left and right but control had larger anterior hippocampi in left and right.
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What was a result of Pixel counting?
There was no difference in overall volume of hippocampus between TD and NTD.
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What were two results of the correlational analysis?
1. Positive correlation between RIGHT posterior hippocampus with time spent as a TD. 2. Negatime correlation between time spent as TD and volume of RIGHT anterior hippocampi.
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What were the two conclusions of Maguire?
1. There are regional structural differences in hippocampi of TD and NTD. Posterior hippocampus increases in TD, supporting the idea of brain plasticity. 2. The longer the TD the larger the posterior hippocampal volume.
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What was the Background of Maguires study based on with the Hippocampus?

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Previous research has showed the hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory.

Card 3

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What is the anterior and posterior hippocampus?

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Card 4

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What was the aim of Maguire?

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Card 5

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Give three of five characteristics of the sample

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