Psychology- Developmental

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What is attachment defined as?
"a strong, reciprocal emotional bond with another person"
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What are the four characteristics of early attachment? - Maccoby 1980
1)seeking proximity 2)distress on separation 3)pleasure when reunited 4)general orientation of behaviour towards primary CG
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main types of attachment (Ainsworth and Bell)?
A insecure avoidant. B secure attachment. C insecure resistant.
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What are the characteristics of Type A attachment?
infant does not seek contact with CG, shows little distress when separated, no pleasure on return of CG and treats CG like stranger.
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What are the characteristics of Type B attachment?
infant has strong attachment to CG, distress at CG absence, content when they return
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What are the characteristics of Type C attachment?
infant insecure with CG, distressed when separated from CG, rejects CG on return, clingy to CG
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Related research for attachment types Ainsworth 1970 - strange situation study AO1
mother and child in room, child placed on floor, stranger enters, interacts with child, mother leaves, stranger comforts child, 3 mins mother returns, stranger leaves, mother leaves, child alone, stranger returns, comforts child, mother returns
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Ainsworth 1970 - strange situation study AO2
easy to replicate, lots of info in short time, lacks ecological validity, stressful for baby and mother
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Learning theory of attachment AO1
Dollard & Miller, attachment is set of learned behaviors. Basis for learning of attachments is the provision of food. Infant will form attachment to whoever feeds it. operant condition of parent motivates feeding of child, reward vs punishment for CG
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Learning theory of attachment AO2
not all adults who form attachments provide food, e.g. grandparents. over simple, reductionist, food and drink are cause of attachments when really more complex
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Related research for learning theory of attachment
(for) Skinner, research with cats and rats showed they repeated behaviour to gain food reward. (against) Harlow et al, studied infant monkeys deprived of mothers, given 2 surrogates, cloth- no food and metal- food. when scared went to cloth mother
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Evidence for learning theory of attachment AO2
extrapolation issues, low ecological validity
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Evolutionary theory of attachment AO1
children come into world biologically programmed to form attachments, because will help them survive. Infant produces innate ‘social releaser’ behaviors such as crying and smiling that stimulate innate caregiving responses
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Evolutionary theory of attachment AO1 Bowlby
child initially form one primary attachment (monotropy). critical period for developing attachments 0-5years. forms prototype for future attachments and relationships, disrupting can have severe consequences
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Evolutionary theory of attachment related research - Harlow's monkeys AO1
infant monkeys reared with surrogate mothers, one cloth- no food, one wire- food. monkeys spent more time with cloth mother, only going to wire mother for food. cloth mother also decreased fear in monkeys.
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Evolutionary theory of attachment related research - Harlow's monkeys AO2
extrapolation issues, unnecessarily cruel, monkeys suffered psychological harm however provided valuable insight into development of attachment
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Cultural differences in attachment related research - Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg (1988) AO1
carried out meta-analysis using Ainsworth's stage situation study, 32 studies, 8 countries, 2,000 infants. B most common, A more common in West Germany, rare in Israel and Japan, C common in Israel, China & Japan, low in Sweden
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Cultural differences in attachment related research - Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg (1988) AO2
large sample size, however not truly representative, 27 individualist and 5 collective cultures, difficult to establish internal validity, culturally bias as over half in USA and Ainsworth's method developed in US
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Cultural differences in attachment related research - Ainsworth AO1
Uganda, 25 mothers and infants, 7 months, infants formed attachments between 6 and 9 months, similar to UK.
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Individualist cultures ca be defined as?
alue independence with each working to their own individual goals e.g. USA and Europe (Western Cultures).
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Collectivist cultures can be defined as?
value cooperation with each working towards the family or group goals e.g. Japan and Israel (Eastern Cultures)
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Cultural differences in attachment related research - Ainsworth AO2
researcher bias, high ecological validity
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Inter-cultural variations can be defined as?
“Differences between countries/cultures”
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Intra-cultural variations can be defined as?
“Differences between cultures within a country”
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Deprivation is the...
loss of CG for significant period of time, experience of bond disruption
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Privation is the...
absence of CG throughout child's early life and development, may cause significant emotional damage
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Deprivation and privation related research - Hodgers and Tizzard AO1
longitude study of 65 children taken into care before 4 months old. By 4 years, 24 adopted and 15 returned home. Assessed at 4, 8 and 16. At 4, children returned home not as intellectually developed. At 16 children adopted more likely form close att.
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Deprivation and privation related research - Hodgers and Tizzard AO2
small sample, lacks validity due to extraneous variable, high attrition, culturally biased, demand characteristics.
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Deprivation and privation related research - Genie case study AO1
girl, 14 years old, no human contact, locked in dark room. Had inability to learn language, form attachments or walk normally.
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Deprivation and privation related research - Genie case study AO2
poor validity, ideographic (small sample)
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Short term effects of separation - Robertson and Bowlby
Protest - child distressed, feels anger and fear. Despair - child becomes calmer and self comforts. Detachment - child becomes less distressed, if CG returns, they may ignore them
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What are the long term effects of separation?
separation anxiety - clinginess, child clings to CG when they leave (e.g. babysitter) and detachment, child refuses to be hugged or cuddled by CG
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Factors affecting child's response to separation are?
age, sex, type of attachment and experience of past separation
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Effects of institutionalisation -Ruffer et al AO1
100 Romanian orphans, adopted in UK before 2yrs old. Physically and mentally undeveloped. Those adopted latest showed slowest improvement. Adopted less than 6 months 9% marked disinhibilitation, 6-24 months 26%
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Effects of institutionalisation -Ruffer et al AO2
rich and detailed, longitudal study, high attrition, research needed to be sensitive, freedom to withdraw.
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2 types of daycare are?
Nursery or family based
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Effect of daycare on social development related research - Anderson
Sweden, children in daycare got along better with other children, more sociable than children who didn't attend daycare
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Effect of daycare on social development related research - DiLalla
Negative correlation between amount of time in daycare and amount of pro-social behaviour
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Effect of daycare on social development related research - Clarke Stewart
Compared progress of 150 children in different daycare. Nursery = better social development. Family setting = less social development
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What are the four characteristics of early attachment? - Maccoby 1980

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1)seeking proximity 2)distress on separation 3)pleasure when reunited 4)general orientation of behaviour towards primary CG

Card 3

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main types of attachment (Ainsworth and Bell)?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What are the characteristics of Type A attachment?

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Card 5

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What are the characteristics of Type B attachment?

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