Psychology Definitions

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Define Encoding
The process of transforming a sensory input for it to be registered in memory. There are different ways of encoding different material depending on the sensory input, e.g. by sound, visions or meaning.
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Define Capacity
How much information can be stored. This is 7+/-2 items in STM and it is unlimited in LTM.
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Define Duration
How long the information can be stored. This is 1 or 2 seconds in sensory memory, up to 20 seconds in STM and a lifetime in LTM.
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Define Storage
The retention of information in memory.
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Define Sensory Memory
A short-duration store holding the impressions of sensory information.
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Define Short-Term Memory
A temporary store holding small amounts of information for brief periods of time.
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Define Long-Term Memory
A permanent store holding limitless amounts of information for long periods of time.
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Define Chunking
Grouping information together in short-term memory into larger units to increase capacity. Combining items into meaningful units.
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What Does the Central Executive do?
Oversees and coordinates the components of working memory. It is the the filter that determines which information is and isn't attended to.
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Define Phonological Loop
The system that deals with auditory information.
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Define Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
The system that deals with visual and spatial items.
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Define Phonological Store
The system that stores words heard (inner ear).
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Define Articulatory Process
The process that allows sub-vocal repetition of information in the phonological loop (inner voice).
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Define Primary Acoustic Store
The system that stores recently heard speech or sound.
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Define Visual Cache
The system that stores visual material about form and colour.
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Define Inner Scribe
The system that stores information about spatial relationships.
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Define Episodic Buffer
The system that stores integrated information from the central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and long-term memory.
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Define Misleading Information
Information that suggests a desired answer.
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Define Retrieval
The extraction of stored information
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What are Misleading Questions?
Questions that make it likely that a participant's schema will influence them to give a desired answer.
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What is Post-Event Information?
Misleading information added to a question after the incident has occured
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Define Schemas
Ready-made expectations based on previous experiences, moods, existing knowledge, context, attitudes and stereotypes.
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Define Anxiety
An unpleasant state of emotional arousal.
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Define Cognitive Interview
A procedure for police interviews of witnesses to facilitate accurate and detailed recalls.
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Define Enhanced Cognitive Interview
An advanced method of interviewing witnesses to overcome problems caused by inappropriate sequencing of questions.
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Define Retrieval Cues
Prompts that trigger recall.
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Define Active Processing
Subjecting information to deep and meaningful analysis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define Capacity


How much information can be stored. This is 7+/-2 items in STM and it is unlimited in LTM.

Card 3


Define Duration


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Card 4


Define Storage


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define Sensory Memory


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