Psychology- Ch8

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What is memory?
the processes that allow us to record, store, & later retrieve experiences & information
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What is encoding?
getting information into the system by that your brain processes by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes
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What is storage?
retaining information over time
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What is retrieval?
processes that access & use stored information
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What did the original three stage model view STM as?
a temporary holding station along the route from sensory to LTM (whereby information that remained in STM long enough was transferred to permanent storage).
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What do they view it as now?
Working memory- a limited capacity system that temporarily stores and processes information.
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What is the primacy effect?
superior recall of early items on a list
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What is the recency effect?
superior recall of recent items on a list
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What is effortful processing?
encoding that is initiated intentionally & requires conscious attention (e.g. rehearsing information, making lists, taking notes)
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What is automatic processing?
encoding that occurs without intention & requires minimal attention (e.g. information about the frequency, spatial location and sequence of events is encoded automatically).
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What is a schema?
a mental framework (an organized pattern of thought) about some aspect of the world
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What is expertise?
Acquiring expertise is a process of developing schemas that help encode information into meaningful patterns. E.g. a musician can encode music scores, whilst most of us cannot
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What do Ericson and colleagues argue about memory?
that exceptional memory is a highly learned skill that involves prior knowledge, meaningful associations, efficient storage and retrieval, and extensive practice rather than an innate ability.
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What is a mneumonist?
people who display extraordinary memory skills. Highly learned skill that takes advantage of basic memory principles.
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Give an example of people born with exceptional memories.
People with synaesthesia
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Why are neural network (connectionist) models of called parallel distributed processing models?
Becuase various nodes distributed throughout the network fire in parallel and simultaneously spread activation to other nodes in retrieval of info
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What is explicit memory?
conscious or intentional memory retrieval, as when you consciously recognise or recall something.
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What is the difference between recognition and recall?
recognition=deciding whether a stimulus is familiar, recall=spontaneous memory retrieval
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What is implicit memory?
memory that influences our behaviour without conscious awareness.
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What is a retrieval cue?
a stimulus, whether internal or external, that activates information stored in long-term memory
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What is a flashbulb memory?
Recollections that seem so vivid & clear that we can picture them as if they were snapshots of moments in time.
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What is the encoding specificity principle?
memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding. Therefore when stimuli associated with an event become encoded as part of the memory, they may later serve as retrieval cues.
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What is context dependent memory?
: applying the principle to external cues leads us to this theory. It is typically easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was originally encoded
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What is state dependent memory?
applying the principle to internal cues- this theory proposes that it is typically easier to remember something when our internal state at the time of retrieval matches our original state during learning.
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What is mood congruent recall?
we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood. n.b. arousal and drug use also affect this. E.g. difficult to remember acts committed when drunk after you sober up.
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How did Ebbinghaus study the course of forgetting?
By learning nonsense syllables- a list of over 420 of them
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What did he find?
Forgetting initially occurred rapidly (i.e. about half the information might be lost in the first 20 mins) but it slowed down so that only a further 20% would be lost over the course of a month.
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What does more recent research suggest?
The pattern may be true, but the length of time of forgetting is much longer. . Ebbinghaus’ rate of forgetting was faster because he learnt such a lot of material & it was nonsense rather than meaningful
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What is Reminiscence?
The case when older memories do not always disappear first- and in some cases, participants are able to recall more on second testings than on first
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What is tip of tongue state?
we cannot recall something but feel that we are on the verge of remembering it
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What is repression?
A motivational process that protects us by blocking the recall of anxiety-arousing memories
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What is prospective memory? Retrospective memory?
Remembering to perform an activity in the future. Retrospective = Memory for past events.
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What is dementia?
Impaired memory & other cognitive deficits that accompany brain degeneration & interfere with normal functioning
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How do we construct memories?
by piecing together bits of stored information in ways that seem real & accurate
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What is long term potentiation?
enduring increase in synaptic strength
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Card 2

Front

What is encoding?

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getting information into the system by that your brain processes by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes

Card 3

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What is storage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is retrieval?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did the original three stage model view STM as?

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