Psychology approaches

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  • Created by: mitchellc
  • Created on: 08-05-14 15:17
State one strength of the cognitive approach
Many cognitive studies are lab experiments, therefore there is high control over variables. For example Baron-Cohen could establish cause and effect that Autism causes lack of theory of mind.
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State one weakness of the cognitive approach
Many lab experiments have low ecological validity causing demand characteristics. e.g Loftus and P used films as it was impossible to recreate real life crashes. This makes it very difficult to generalise findings to real life eyewitness testimony
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State a second strength of the cognitive approach
Many practical applications of the findings can be used to improve lives. For example Loftus and Palmers study could prove vital for police interviewing techniques
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State a second weakness of the cognitive approach
It is difficult to measure how cognitive processes work as they are mental and cannot be seen. For example in Savage Rumbaugh's study there was no doubt the chimp could recognise words but it is still difficult to tell whether it is the same language
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State one strength of the developmental approach
The developmental approach can collect lots of rich qualitative data. For example in Freud's study data was collected about little Hans for two years
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State one weakness of the developmental approach
It is difficult to obtain participants who were representative samples of the population. For example in Bandura's study all the children were from the same nursery not reflecting a wide range of social and ethnic groups
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State a second strength of the developmental approach
It provides useful information that can be applied to everyday life. The findings from Samuel and Bryants study could be used to help teachers understand learning through assessing conservation skills and age
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State a second weakness of the developmental approach
Development is a very complex process and it is difficult to isolate and one cause of behaviour. For example in Freud's study his phobia may not hav ebeen due to the oedipus complex at all but because he learned to fear horses from other children
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State one strength of the physiological approach
High levels of control can be obtained when using scientific techniques and equipment to measure variables. For example dement and klietman was able to produce objective reliable data using EEG scans
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State a second strength of the physiological approach
It demonstrates clear links between biology and behaviour which can lead to practical applications. Maguires study demonstrates plasticity , this may have positive effects for treatment of brain damage
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State one weakness of the physiological approach
Using highly controlled lab experiments may reduce ecological validity. In dement and klietmans study the data may have been influenced by an artificial environment, Would the data be different if it was collected in the participants own homes
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State a second weakness of the physiological approach
The studies often use very small and specific samples making it harder to generalise the results. In Sperry's study only 11 participants were used. How can we be sure that the epilepsy had in some way damaged their brains and they were atypical
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State one strength of the social approach
The frequent use of field experiments allow for ecologically valid data to be collected. Piliavin used a subway train with real passengers so they were more likely to react naturally rather than in a way which is socially desirable
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State one weakness of the social approach
Lab experiments can be used to study social processes. For example Milgram used a lab setting and an unusual task. Such artificial tasks and surroundings can affect validity of the data gathered
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State a second strength of the social approach
Findings of the social approach have many real life applications. Reicher and Haslam discovered that failure of groups to identify with each other can lead to a reduction in power and negative consequences, this can be used to look at prison systems
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State a second weakness of the social approach
The ethics of putting people in distressing situations must be considered, In Milgram's study participants suffered from extreme stress
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State one strength of the individual differences approach
The approach collects qualitative and quantitative data allowing the researcher to identify patterns and explain them. For example Thigpen and Clekley used IQ scores ad psychometric testing as well as their own interpretations of interviews/letters
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State a second strength of the individual differences approach
By understanding human behaviour we can develop ways to help those who have problems. Griffiths study suggested that addicted gamblers have different ways of thinking. By telling them to think aloud he was able to slow gambling
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State one weakness of the individual differences approach
Data can often be subjective as it is usually one persons interpretations. In Thigpen and Clekley's study they wanted to discover someone with MPD so interpretations would have been bia
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State a second weakness of the individual differences approach
Demand characteristics affect validity of results. In Rosenhan's study the pseudopatients may have behaved in a certain way because they were participant observers, other patients also suspected they were 'spys' so may present artificial behaviour
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Card 2

Front

State one weakness of the cognitive approach

Back

Many lab experiments have low ecological validity causing demand characteristics. e.g Loftus and P used films as it was impossible to recreate real life crashes. This makes it very difficult to generalise findings to real life eyewitness testimony

Card 3

Front

State a second strength of the cognitive approach

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State a second weakness of the cognitive approach

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

State one strength of the developmental approach

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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