Research methods

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What is included in a debrief?
2nd person, Apologise for deception, Give true aim of study, Explain reasons for deception, Right to withdraw, Thank for taking part and Any questions?
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What is a null hypothesis?
A hypothesis which predicts the IV will have no effect on the DV or be a corralation
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What is an extraneuos variable?
A variable which is not an IV or DV but can influence the experiment if not controlled
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What are descriptive stats?
Methods of summarising a data set such as measure of central tendency, use of graphs
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What is a significance level?
The level at which has been agreed to reject the null hypothesis
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What does P stand for?
A level of significance that has to be reached to prove that the results are due to chance
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What is a type 1 error?
Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true
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What is a type 2 error?
Rejecting the alternative hypothesis when it is true
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What are inferential stats?
Statistical test that are done to determine whether or not the findings are significant
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What is the critical value?
The tabled value from the statics which the observed value must be measured to determine it is significant
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What are parts of a lab book report template?
Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Disscussion, References, Appendices
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What is the abstract?
A summary of the general aims, method, sampling, results and conclusion, it helps to see if it is relevant or not
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What is the introduction?
Gives a rationale for the work and choice of research method
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What is included in the introduction?
Aim of study, Background info, *** this leads to the hypothesis, Reasons for the choice of research method and statement of hypothesis
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What are the 4 elements of the results?
Descriptive stats, Graph of data, Inferential stats and Level of significance used & why
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What is the discussion?
Explains the findings; what they mean, what they confirm, limitations, criticisms, implications (what they mean to society)
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What are references?
References of all studies used as background research
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What are the appendicies?
Copies of consent forms, standardised instructions, stimulus material (photos), statistical calculations
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What does empirical research mean?
When data is gathered by direct observation or experiment, evidence based
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What does objective research mean?
Research should not be effected by the researcher or participant expectations, unbiased so data is reliable
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What does controlled research mean?
Researcher needs to control extraneous variables so we can see what effect the IV has on a DV
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What is replicable research?
Research which needs to be systematically recorded so it can be replicated. If people repeat this and they get similar results are found it increases the credibility
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What is theory construction?
Facts alone are meaningless so the explanations need to be converted to a theory
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What are empirical methods?
Info gathered through direct observation or experiment to collect facts
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Why do other researchers use peer review?
May be working on same topic and want to keep up with the latest research, or may think they could improve on or disprove someone's work
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Why is peer review beneficial?
Ensures poor quality research doesn't enter the public domain
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What is the system for peer review?
Paper is submitted to journal for publiciation, Editor sends it to other experts in that field to be critically appraise all aspects, Returned with recommendations as to whether it is acceptable and if not revise and resubmitted
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When is setting the p value too stringent good?
If you are testing a new medical treatment such as a drug
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What is socially sensitive research?
Studies where there are potential social consequences or inplications, direttly for the participants in the research or class of individuals represented from the research
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What is the induction scientific process?
Observation - Testable hypothesis - Conduct a study to test hypothesis - Draw conclusion - Propose theory
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What is the deduction scientific process?
Observations - Propose theory - Testable hypothesis - Conduct a study to test the hypothesis - Draw conslusions
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What is hypothesis testing?
Where the validity of a theory is tested
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What are ways of assessing validity?
Face, Concurrent, Predictive, Ecological, Mundane realism, Content, Population
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What is face validity?
Does it appear to be measuring what we want?
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What is concurrent validity?
Does it show similar results to a previously validated measure?
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What is predictive validity?
How well does it predict future performance/behaviour? eq GCSEs predicting A levels
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What is ecological validity?
The degree to which findings can be generalised to other situations
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What is mundane realism?
The degree to which the setting/procedures reflect real life
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What is content validity?
Are the test items representative of that which is being measured?
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What are ways of improving validity?
Single blind & double blind-control observer bias, Stratified/quota sampling- improve generalisability to target population, Peer review - determine the accuracy of test, Use more than 1 observer for each P and average the data to reduce observerbias
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What is internal reliability?
Is it consistent within itself and is it measuring the same thing
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What is external reliablility?
Does it consistently get the same results on different occasions
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What is test retest method?
Carry out the same test on the same Ps twice and correlate the results from both
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What is the split half method?
Randomly divide the test into two halves and compare the same Ps results
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What is inter-rater reliability?
Use 2 observers on the same Ps and correlate their result
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What are ways of improving reliability?
Tighten up behaviour catagories, Train observers in the use of the checklist to increase consistency, select test items that correlate most closely to improve the consistency, use more than one observer for each P, check Qs to ensure clarity
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What is a structured interview?
All questions pre planned and read from a script
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What is a semi structured interview?
Topics are predetermined with alternative routes to lead on from answers but always go back to the topic
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What is an unstructured interview?
Have topic area but not a plan
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What is interviewer bias?
Expectations of the interviewer shape questions to get desired answers
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What is interviewer effect?
Where characteristics of the interviewer can effect the response
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What are behavioural categories?
A predetermined list of behaviours tallied when observed
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What is a coding system?
List of behaviours with a number, usually with facial expressions
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What is continuous observation?
Record all behaviours for a specific time
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What is event sampling?
Decide what behaviours looking for then observe
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What is time sampling?
Observe what doing for a set time, writing down all behaviours
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What is an overt observation?
When people are aware they're being observed
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What is covert observation?
When people are not aware they're being observed
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What is a direct observation?
Observe behaviour by watching them personally or through a video
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What is an indirect observation?
Observing through things such as content analysis eq look at books or adverts
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What is a naturalistic observation?
When don't control the IV or manipulate anything
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What is a controlled observation?
Where they control the IV and manipulate the situation eq the Strange situation
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What is content analysis?
Type of observation where you're not analysing people directly but analysing the content of artifacts they produce
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What is presumptive consent?
Gain informed consent from a population similar eq age and location
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What prior general consent?
Ask bunch of people if okay to deceive people in a certain way, then carry out research on some of those people
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What is a quantitative content analysis?
Describe examples of the behaviour eq angry = eyebrow raise & fist clenched
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Why do we test on non-human animals?
No demand characteristics, life span and reproduction is quicker which makes longitudinal data easier
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What are problems on testing on non-human animals?
Can cause problems such as thalidomide which resulted in babies being born with de formalities
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What are the 3 Rs included in animal research?
Reduction, Replacement & Refinement
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What is Bateson's cube?
Cost benefit analysis based on quality of research, cost of animal and benefit to humanity
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When should you go through with research?
When quality is high, cost low and benefits high
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When shouldn't you go through with research?
When quality is low, cost is high and benefit is low
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a null hypothesis?


A hypothesis which predicts the IV will have no effect on the DV or be a corralation

Card 3


What is an extraneuos variable?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are descriptive stats?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a significance level?


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