Psychology Approaches

What are all the aproaches in psychology?
Behavourism, Social Learning Theory, Cognitive, Psychodynamic, Humanistic and Biological.
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What is behaviourism?
Behaviourist psychologists focus on the environment and how that affects observable behaviour.
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What are some assumptions of the behaviourist approach?
1. The blank slate theory 2. Environmnetal Determinism 3. Studying psychology means understanding what people have learnt and how. 4. Observable behaviour is studied, and speculation about mental processes should be avoided.
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What is 'The Blank Slate' theory and what psychologist suggested it?
That people are products of their environment and the psychologist was John Locke
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What is environmental determinism?
Learning and behaviour is under the control of the environment.
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What is Thorndike's 'Law of effect'?
If behaviour produces satisfying consequences then it will be repeated.
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What are the two types of conditioning?
Classical and Operant
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association
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What famous psychologist used classical conditioning and what basic aspects did it involve?
Pavlov carried out a study where a dog associated a bell ringing to food being given to it?
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Why did pavlov use a dog and what is this called?
It is called compartive psychology where animals can be used to associate their behaviour to that of what a human would do.
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What is operant conditioning?
Learning through consequence. Either reinforcement or punisment.
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What is reinforcement and what is punishment?
Reinforcement is a consequence that strengthens the behaviour and punishment is a consequence that weakens behaviour.
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What is positive and negative reinforcement?
P = adding something the organism likes N = taking something, that the organism dosen't like, away.
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Is attention positve or negative reinforcement?
Positive
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Is avoidance positive or negative reinforcement?
Negative
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What psychologist used operant conditioning and what basic aspects did it include?
Skinner's box involved a rat. Positive reinforcement involved the rat pressing a lever to gain food. Negative reinforcement was shown when the rat was given electric shocks but learnt that when it knocked the lever the shocks would stop.
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How was punishment represented in skinners box?
Every time the rat tried to leave the box it would be given electric shocks.
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What is the social learning theory approach? What approach is it a branch of?
It is a branch of behaviourism. Social learning theorists believe that things take place within the organism that mediates between the stimulus and response.
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What is the difference between behaviourists and social learning theorists?
SLT believe we learn through indirect experience whereas behaviourists believe we learn through direct experiences.
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What improtant ideas did SLT give to the classical and operant conditioning ideas?
1. Mediating processes between stimuli and response 2. Observational learning/vicarious reinforcement.
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What is vicarious reinforcement?
Our tendedancy to repeat behaviour that others are being rewarded for.
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What study was conducted that represented social learning theory? What was its basic aspects?
Bandura's bobo doll. Children watched adults be agressive towards a doll. They copied that behaviour. More likely if they related with them.
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What does ARMM stand for?
A - attention (notice the behaviour) R - retention (remembering the behaviour) M - Motor reproductions (have the ability to copy the behaviour) M - motivation (given a reason they will demonstrate the behaviour)
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What is the cognitive approach?
is a relatively modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave. If you think in a positve way then youre behaviour will be positive.
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What are some assumptions of the cognitve approach? (Part1)
1. It was developed as a reaction against the the behaviourists stimulus-response approach. 2. For a cognitive approach psychologist, it is the events within a person that must be studied if behaviour is to be fully understood.
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What are some assumptions of the cognitve approach? (Part2)
3.Unlike behaviourists, CA psychologists believe that it is possible to study internal processes in an objective way and that insight into mental processes may be inferred from behaviour. 4. They are concerned in how our thinking shapes our behaviour
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What is a schema?
A package of beliefs and expectations on a topic that comes from prior experience.
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What are schemas good and bad?
They are useful as they allo us to take shortcuts in thinking. They are bad because they could lead us to faulty conclusions and unhelpful behaviour.
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What type of model do CA psychologists use to describe their approach?
Like a computer and information processing model
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What case study was used in the cognitive approach and what was its basic aspects?
Phineas gage was a man that suffered a injury to his frontal lobe. He survived but over time he became more irrational and inappropriate within his behaviour. He became "difficult company" It proved that damage to the brain could alter behaviour.
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What is the psychodynamic approach?
an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.
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What are assumptions of the psychodynamic aproach?
1. Floyd's idea that the personaility has 3 parts. 2. We can acess the unconcious ming via dream anaylsis 3. Free association 4. Freud's tripartie personality
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What were the 3 parts to FLOYDS human personilty? And what are they?
1. The conscious, the mental activity what we know about 2. The pre-conscious: Things we could be aware of if we wanted to (memories) 3. The unconscious: Things we are unaware of and cannot be aware of (deeply buried memories)
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We can access the uncosncious mind through dream analysis. How?
Repressed ideas in the unconcious are likely to appear in dreams. Freud reffered to this as the latent content of dreams.
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What is the latent content of dreams?
The latent content of a dream is the hidden psychological meaning of the dream. Freud believed that the content of dreams is related to wish fulfillment and suggested that dreams have two types of content: manifest content and latent content
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What is the manifest content of dreams?
The manifest content of a dream is the actual literal content and storyline of the dream. This is usually contrasted with what is referred to as the latent content or hidden meaning of the dream.
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What is free association?
The individual is encouraged to relax and say anything that comes to their mind. The idea is that the ego will be unable to keep check of threatening unconscious impulses
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What is Freud's tripartie peronality theory?
1 The ID - operates according to the pleasure principle. It is contained in the unconscious 2. The superego - opposes the id's desires. It enforces moral restrictions 3. The ego - manage the ID and the superego. The reality priciple
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The ego defends itself from id-superego using defence mechanisms. What are the types?
1. Repression - forcing a distressing memory out of the conscious mind. 2. Denial - Reject reality 3. Displacement - transfer feelings from source onto a substitute target. 4. Sublimation - Satisyfying an impulse with a substitute object
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The ego defends itself from id-superego using defence mechanisms. What are the types? (Part 2)
5. Regression - Moving back in psychological time when placed under stress 6. Projection - Individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts, feelings and motives to another person.
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What can excessive use of denfece mechanisms cause?
It will result in the ego becoming detached from reality and can abuse psychological disorder.
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What order does the psychosexual stages of development go in?
Oral , anal, phallic, latency and genital
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What is the oral stage and what can fixation at this stage do to behaviour?
Within the age of 0-18 months the ID and pleasure principle through the mouth lips and tongue. Fixation could cause: smoking, obesity, sarcasm, nail/pen biters.
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What is the anal stage and what can fixation at this stage do to behaviour?
Withing the age of 1-3 years the ego devlops as the parents impose restrictions. Bladder and bowel control. Explusion and retention. Fixation can cause: Explusion - messy and reckless. Retentive - precise and stubborn
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What is the phallic stage and what can fixation at this stage do to behaviour?
Within the age of 3-6 years there is genital curiousity and establish sex roles. The superego develops resolution of the Oedipus or electra complex. Fixation at this stage could cause: selfishness, vain, incapable of loving, sexually overconfident.
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What is the latent stage and what can fixation at this stage do to behaviour?
Within the age of 6-12 years the libido is quiet. Energy for gaining knowledge and social skills. There is repression of desires from the oedipus and electra complex
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What is the genital stage and what can fixation at this stage do to behaviour?
12+. Puberty: focus on genitals. Revist phallic stage. Form hetreosexual relationships. Conflict with ID, Ego and Superego. If you were unsuccesful within the stages you become what the fixations could lead you to.
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What is the Oedipus complex?
Unconscious complex w/ ego & Id.Libido focus on genitals & love becomes sexual.Aggression towards father, love for mother.Castration fear becomes stronger than desire for mom.Identification w/ dad & superego develops by social rules of dad now learnt
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What is the Electra complex?
Unconscious conflict between the ego & Id. Penis envy. Replace envy with baby desire. Father is a love object & jealous of mom. Rejects desires to identify w/ mom. Process is never fully resolved. Superego develops when the girl identifies w/ the mom
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What case study was used in the psychodynamic approach? What was its basic aspects?
Little Hans. He had a fear of horses and Freud said this was an expression of the Oedipus complex. The horse symbolizes his father. The oedipal conflict was developing when regarding Hans being allowed into his parents bed.
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What is the humanistic approach?
an approach to psychology that emphasizes empathy and stresses the good in human behavior.
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What are some assumptions of the humanistic approach?
1. Every individual is unique 2. Free will 3. Holism 4. The scientific method is not a way to measure behaviour
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The humanistic approach is an idiographic approach. What does this mean?
That it only studies individuals.
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What is self actualisation?
The achievement of our full potential
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Carl rogers suggested we have 3 selfs. What are they?
1. Self concept 2. Ideal self 3. Real self.
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What does Carl Rogers mean by congruence?
When all the selves are the same. It is necessary to be congruent to reach self actualisation.
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What are conditions of worth?
Requirements an individual feels like they need to meet to be loved.
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What is conditional and unconditional positive regard?
Conditional is where positive regard (praise and approval) depends on the individual. They behave in ways they think will be approved. Unconditional is where other people accept and love the person and positive regard is not withdrawn ever.
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What is the biological approach?
That you are a product of your genetics, brain structure and chemical imbalances.
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What are some of the assumption for the biological approach?
1- Investigates how biological structures & processes impact behaviour 2. Human behaviour has a physiological cause which can be environmentally or genetically altered. 3. Genes affect behaviour & influence individual psychological differences.
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What are some of the assumption for the biological approach?
Evolutionary psychology considers genetic influences in common behaviours. 4. Psychologists should study the brain nervous system and other biological systems.
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The biological approach study twins. Which type of twin is most likely to wanted to be studied on most?
Monozygotic over dizygotic. They study concordance rates which are how the twins share similar traits
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Why do biological psychologists study adoptive kids?
To see the traits and characteristics between adoptive parents are the biological parents to the child.
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What is the genotype and phenotype?
"Genotype" is an organism's full hereditary information. "Phenotype" is an organism's actual observed properties
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What is the case study that was disproved which evidently proved the biological approach?
David Reimer. It proved nature trumps nurture. It was unethical.
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What is behaviourism?

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Behaviourist psychologists focus on the environment and how that affects observable behaviour.

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What are some assumptions of the behaviourist approach?

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What is 'The Blank Slate' theory and what psychologist suggested it?

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What is environmental determinism?

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marston smith

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you mean why not what 

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