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what is an experiment?
an experiment is a research method used for scientific investigations.It is used to find out if something is causing something else to happen.
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what is cause and effect?
when an experimenter aims to find out if one variable has an effect on other variable causing a change.
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what is an aim?
what they want to do or to find out.
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what is a hypothesis?
a prediction of what they expect to find out from the research
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what are the 2 types of hypothesis?
alternative - predicts a diffference or a relationship. null - predicts no difference or relationship
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what are the 2 types of alternative hypotheses?
one tailed(directional) and two tailed(non directional)
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explain directional and non directional hypothesis?
directional hypothesis states the direction which the results will go in(there will be). non directional hypothesis is less clear of the direction the results will go in(there will be a difference)
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what is the IV and DV?
indepedant variable is something the psychologist changes or manipulates. dependant variable is something that is measured to see if it has changed.
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what does operationalised mean?
IV and the DV must be measurable and repeatable. every participant needs to be doing the same thing(using the same rating scale)
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what are extraneous variables?
things that could affect the DV if they are not controlled
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how do we control EV's?
standardisation- keeping variables the same across the experiment so they do not cause unwanted changes( keeping the timings the same)
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what are the 3 types of EV's?
participant variables,situational and experimenter variables.
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what is a lab experiment?
conducted in a natural environment, where all variables are controlled. pp's aware they are in the study do not know aim.
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give advantages and disadvantages of lab experiment?
can be replicated= cause and effect, control of ev's. artifical setting, low ecological validity, demand characteristics and low mundane realism
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what is a field experiment?
conducted in natural environment, pp's may not know they are taking part in study. IV is manipulated.
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give advantages and disadvantges of filed experiment?
high ecological validity=natural setting, generalise findings, pp's not chnage behaviour. less control over EV's, difficult to replicate
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what is a natural/quasi experiment?
conducted in everyday environment, IV occurs naturally. researcher takes advantage of pre existing conditions.
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give advantages and disadvantages of natural/quasi experiment?
high ecological validity, less chance of demand characteristics. expensive and time consuming and no control over EV's.
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what is an independant groups design?
involves 2 seperate sets of pp's, who represent one condition of the IV
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what is a repeated measures design?
uses the same pp's in all conditions(before a test and after a test)
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what is a matched pairs design?
2 sets of pp's similar to IM, but they are matched in terms of a key variable, e.g score on a test or attitude to a certain thing.
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give advantages and disadvantages of independant groups?
avoids order effects, avoids demand characteristics. need more pp's than RM, cannot control pp variables.
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give advantages and disadvantages of repeated measures design?
fewer pp's are needed than other designs(IM), avoids problem of pp variables. order of conditions could affect performace=boredom effect.
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give advantages and disadvantages of matched pair design?
reduces pp variables and order effects. Very time consuming, difficult to match pairs, cant control all variables.
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define population and sample?
population=group of people fro whom the sample is drawn from. sample= smaller group of people selected from a larger population
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why use sampling techniques?
to choose people who are representative(typical) of the population. sample=representative=generalisable.
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what is opportunity sampling?
taking sample from people who are avaliable at the time of the study and fit the criteria.
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give advantages and disadvantages
quick and easy, not time consuming. unrepresenative=cant generalise, biased as it is only a small sample
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what is volunteer sampling?
participants become part of the study becasue they volunteer when asked or in response to an advert
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give advantages and disadvantages of volunteer sampling?
gives access to a variety of pp's=more representative. sample is biased as pp's are likely to be motivated, or have free time on their hands.
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what is random sampling?
evreryone has equal chance of being selected,
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give advantages and disadvantages of random sampling?
more represenative than opportunity, unbiased=equal chance of being selected.time consuming and have to contact those who have been selected.
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what is systematic sampling?
pre determined system to select pp's (e.g every 10th person from a phone book)
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give advantages and disadvantages of systematic sampling?
unbiased=pp's selected using objective system. not truely biased you select random not allowing equal chance
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what is stratified sampling?
involves classifiying population into categories, and then choosing a sample which contains pp's from each category.
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give advantages and disadvantages of stratified sampling?
more representative than other SM, very time consuming and expensive.
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what is reliability?
refers to how consistent the results are, if the experiment was repeated will the same results occur = yes = high reliability
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how do we measure reliability?
test retest, inter rater and split half reliability
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what is test retest reliability?
the measure is administered to the same group of people twice, if the results on the 2 tests are similar then the test is reliable.
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what is inter rater reliability?
if the measure depends upon interpretation of behaviour, we can compare the results from 2 or more raters. high agreement between raters= reliable.
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what is split half reliability?
splitting a test into two halves, comparng the scores in both halves. ifresults in 2 halves are similar then we can assume test is reliable.
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what is validity?
the extent to which a test measurs what it claims to measure
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what are the 3 main aspects of validity?
control, realism and generalizability
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what is control?
refers to how well the experimenter has controlled the experiment control = no cause and effecr.without control cannot state IV caused change in DV could be EVs.
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what is realism?
point of psychological research= provide inofrmation on how people behave in real life. if experiment too controlled, pp's may act differently than they would in real life. resultscan lack validity .
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what is mundane realism?
how well an experiment reflects real life(task). high mundane realism=high ecologicalvalidity.
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what is generalizability?
aim of psychological research=produce results which can be generalised beyond the setting of the experiment. e.g low population validity - difficult to generalise.
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what is internal validity?
things that happen insde the study(whether the IV caused the change in the DV). internal validity can be affeted by = lack on mundane realism(lead pp's to act in an unnatural way,making results less valid) and extraneous variables.
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give examples of EV's?
situational, participant, investigator effects, demand characteristics and participant variables.
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what is ecological validity?
how well the experimental situation reflects real life and therefore how well the results can be generalised to other settings and places.
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what is population validity?
how well the pp's used in the experiment represent the general population. many studies use white, middle class male american students.
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what is temporal validity?
refers to whether findings from a study hold true overtime. if a study was conducted in 1920, are the findings still valid in 2015
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what is operationalisation?
when psychological concepts are turned into numbers that can be measured and compared.
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how can we assess the validity of a measure?
content validity, concurrentand construct validity
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what is content validity?
does the method used actually seem to measure what you intended
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what is concurrent validity?
how well does the measure agree with existing measures?
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what is construct validity?
is the method actually measuring all parts of what we are aiming to measure
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what is a pilot study?
small scale trial run of the initial research conducting before the actual research. used to test out planned procedures and identify any flaws.
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why conduct a pilot study?
check for any ethical issues, how the experimentwill be conducted, saves money and time, any errors.
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what are the 6 ethical issues in psychology?
informed consent, deception, right to withdraw, privacy, confidentiality and proectionfrom harm.
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what is informed consent?
pp's must be told what is going to happen in the study. informed about what they are expected to do and what will happen. if pp's fully informed=alter behaviour=less valid results
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what is deception?
researcher withholds information from pp's givingthem false information unethical as pp's have the right not to be lied to. if information is withheld- unable to give fully informed consent.
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what is right to withdraw?
pp's have the right to withdraw from any study at any time without any consequence. due to a number of reasons such as distress or uncomfortable. pp's should have right to leave when they have been decieved, or unable to give fully informed consent.
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what is protection from harm?
pp's could suffer physical or psychological harm from a study. design studiesto ensure pp's come to no harm than they would everyday.potential harm needs to be communicated to them so they can give informed consent.
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what is privacy?
some RM require pp's to be unaware they are in the study untill afterwards. researchers need to be careful they do not invade privacy of pp's.
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what is confidentiality?
protection of participants data which can be difficult sometimes as researcher will want to publish findings. data is kept anonymous
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what is cause and effect?


when an experimenter aims to find out if one variable has an effect on other variable causing a change.

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what is an aim?


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what is a hypothesis?


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what are the 2 types of hypothesis?


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