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Who was the multi-store model proposed by?
Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968
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How is the Sensory register coded?
In stores - iconic store (visually) and echoic store (acoustically)
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What is the capacity of the sensory register?
Large - at least 9 items. Pay little attention so info forgotten.
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What is the duration of the sensory register?
Less than a second visually, about 2 acoustically.
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How is the short-term memory coded?
Largely acoustic. Maintained through maintenance rehearsal.
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What is the capacity of the short-term memory?
Limited - 5-9 or the magic 7+/-2
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What is the duration of the short-term memory?
Up to about 30 seconds.
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How is the long-term memory coded?
Semantically, based on meaning.
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What is the capacity of the long-term memory?
Potentially unlimited.
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What is the duration of the long-term memory?
Potentially many years. Forgotten through decay.
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Research study into separate stores of memory?
Glanzer and Cunitz - list of words. Immediate or 30 seconds.
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Case study of HM?
Hippocampus removed, no long term-memory. Not all impaired- many stores.
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Research study into sensory register?
Sperling - tachiscope flashed 12 symbols. 100% immediately, poorer after delay.
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Research study into duration of STM?
Brown-Peterson technique. Nonsense trigrams, 0-18 second intervals. Up to 30 secs.
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Research study into capacity of STM?
Miller - lists of digits read then repeated. Held 7+/-2.
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Research study into coding of STM?
Conrad - random 6 consonants, acoustically (dis)similar. More difficult when similar - coded acoustically.
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Research study into duration of LTM?
Bahrick et al - 327 graduates and yearbooks. Recall of names, recognition etc. May last a lifetime but dependent recall.
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Research study into coding of LTM?
Baddeley - 70 servicemen, 5 words, acoustically (dis)similar (no difference) and semantic (different - uses semantic code)
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Strength of lab experiment?
Good control of extraneous variables, many ppts studied so can generalise.
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Weakness of lab experiment?
Materials don't reflect how we use memory every day.
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Strength of natural experiment?
Materials reflect how we use memory every day.
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Weakness of natural experiment?
No control of extraneous variables, only a few ppts studied.
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Strength of multi-store model?
Lots of supporting evidence e.g. Miller, evidence accurate in claims. Case studies.
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Weakness of multi-store model?
STM has more components, capable of processing different types of info. Too simplistic.
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Another weakness of multi-store model?
Rehearsal sometimes not needed to go to LTM. Role of rehearsal not as important as suggested.
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What does episodic memory refer to?
Our ability to recall events from our lives.
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Two features of episodic memory?
You remember when they happened, memory can be strong or weak.
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What part is the episodic memory connected to?
Hippocampus.
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What case study is linked?
HM - some LTM memories in tact but didn't remember events.
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What does semantic memory refer to?
Knowledge about the world.
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What memories do semantic memories begin as?
Episodic memories.
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What parts of the brain are active in semantic memory?
Temporal and frontal lobes.
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What research was done into semantic memories?
Herlitz et al - gender differences of 1000 ppts - found no difference in semantic memory.
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What does procedural memory refer to?
Skills and how to do things.
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Why are procedural sometimes called implicit memories?
Very little conscious effort to recall them.
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What areas are associated with procedural memories?
Primary motor cortex and cerebellum.
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What research was done into procedural memories?
Smith trained animals, disrupted sleep. Negative impact on procedural memories.
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Strength of research into long-term memory?
Brain scans show different parts active in different memory - Tulving correct in 3 types.
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Another strength of research into long-term memory?
Evidence from case studies show coding of s. memories doesn't involve hippocampus. S and E separate types.
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A weakness of research into long-term memory?
Difficult to distinguish s and e memories. E needed to form s. May only be two types.
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Another weakness of research into long-term memory?
Limitations to brain-damaged people - cognitive difficulties may be inaccurate.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is the Sensory register coded?

Back

In stores - iconic store (visually) and echoic store (acoustically)

Card 3

Front

What is the capacity of the sensory register?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the duration of the sensory register?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is the short-term memory coded?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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