PSY101 Chapter 13

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  • Created on: 18-01-16 15:48
Ten signs of happiness published by ONS
People are to be asked how satisfied they are with their husband, wife, or partner, under government plans to measure the country's happiness. The Office for National Statistics has published a list of 10 indicators of well-being, including health.
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What you should be able to do after reading chapter 13
Define motivation; describe and understand the processes involved in starting and stopping a meal; outline the basic psychology and physiology of thirst; describe the major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and obesity
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Questions to think about
What motivates us to eat, drink, be aggressive and have sex? What influences sexual preference and orientation? What causes eating disorders? What strategies can an overweight person adopt to lose weight and, more importantly, maintain this loss?
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Motivation
Why do people behave differently? Why do some individuals eat particular foods whereas others eat different foods? Why do we eat in the first place? What makes us attracted to different sexual partners, or any sexual partner?
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Biological needs
Biological needs can be potent motivators. To survive, we need air, food, water, various vitamins and minerals, and protection from extremes in temperature.
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Physiology of reinforcement
To understand the nature of reinforcement we must understand something about its physiological basis. Olds and Milner (1954) discovered quite by accident that electrical stimulation of parts of the brain can reinforce an animal's behaviour.
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Optimum-level theory
Although events that increase our level of arousal are often reinforcing, there are times when a person wants nothing more than some peace and quiet. In this case, avoidance of exciting stimuli motivates our behaviour.
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Effects of intermittent reinforcement
When an organism's behaviour is no longer reinforced, the behaviour eventually ceases, or extinguishes (see Chapter 7). If the behaviour was previously reinforced every time it occurred, extinction is very rapid.
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The role of conditioned reinforcement
Another phenomenon that affects the tendency to persevere is conditioned reinforcement. When stimuli are associated with reinforcers, they eventually acquire reinforcing properties of their own.
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Failure to persist; learned helplessness
A large body of evidence suggests that organisms can learn they are powerless to affect their own destinies.
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Ingestion: drinking and eating
Much of what an animal learns to do is motivated by the constant struggle to obtain food and drink. The need to eat certainly shaped the evolutionary development of our own species.
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Thirst
A popular theory at the turn of the twentieth century argued that thirst was caused by a dry mouth and that it was this dryness that regulated how much water we ingested.
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Osmometric thirst
A later theory suggested that thirst was caused by dehydration within cells (Gilman, 1937). The fluid in cells is called intracellular fluid and contains a little sodium but large amount of potassium and other metabolites.
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Volumetric thirst
Osmometric thirst is caused by dehydration within cells. There is another type of thirst that results from dehydration outside cells, that is, a reduction in the level of blood plasma.
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What starts a meal?
Cultural and social factors influence when and how much we eat.
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What stops a meal?
Nutrient detectors sense the fact that the body's supplies of stored energy are getting low by measuring glucose and fatty acids in the blood. Through their connection with the brain these detectors are able to stimulate hunger. But what ends hunger?
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Sensory-specific satiety
Have you ever experienced the feeling when, after eating a big savoury meal, you could still manage to eat dessert? Or that you have had enough of eating peanuts but could quite happily contemplate eating a packet of crisps?
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Psychology in action: The problem of obesity and its treatment - Obesity: some figures
In Western countries, obesity is defined as having body fat that exceeds 25 per cent of body weight in women and 18 per cent in men (Bray, 1998). The amount of fat is estimated using a measure called body mass index (BMI).
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Hunger, obesity, food odour and the brain
Several studies have now examined the effects of food aroma and food images on brain activation. One such examined the brain regions involved in the perception of high and low-calorie foods (Killgore and Yorgelun-Todd, 2010).
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Psychology in action: Continued - Consequences of obesity and rationale for intervention
Interventions are recommended when a person has a serious BMI statistic and a risk of developing ill health.
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Psychology in action: Continued - Psychological interventions
Difficulty in restricting food intake is increased during holiday periods which the overweight regard as high-risk periods because of family celebrations or national holiday celebrations.
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Psychology in action: Continued - Surgical interventions
If psychological interventions do not succeed in producing weight loss, more aggressive interventions such as surgery are sometimes implemented if the person is morbidly obese, i.e. the person has a BMI of over 40 kg/m2.
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Psychology in action: Continued - Pharmacological interventions
In recent years, several companies have sought to deliver the perfect anti-obesity drug or 'fat-buster'. Historically, such drugs have been used for other purposes - for depression (fenfluramine, sibutramine) or to combat smoking (rimonabant).
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Psychology in action: Continued - Policy for the future
Wadden et al. (2002) suggest five ways in which the obesity problem might be tackled.
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Define motivation; describe and understand the processes involved in starting and stopping a meal; outline the basic psychology and physiology of thirst; describe the major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and obesity

Back

What you should be able to do after reading chapter 13

Card 3

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What motivates us to eat, drink, be aggressive and have sex? What influences sexual preference and orientation? What causes eating disorders? What strategies can an overweight person adopt to lose weight and, more importantly, maintain this loss?

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Card 4

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Why do people behave differently? Why do some individuals eat particular foods whereas others eat different foods? Why do we eat in the first place? What makes us attracted to different sexual partners, or any sexual partner?

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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Biological needs can be potent motivators. To survive, we need air, food, water, various vitamins and minerals, and protection from extremes in temperature.

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