Proteins and Enzymes

What basic molecule are proteins made from?
Amino acids
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What is a dipeptide?
Two amino acids joined together.
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What bond occurs in proteins?
Peptide bonds.
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Peptide bonds are formed by?
Condensation reactions
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What is the primary structure?
Basic Sequence of amino acids.
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What is the secondary structure?
Either the alpha helix or beta pleated sheets.
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What is the tertiary structure?
The polypeptide chain being coiled even further with ionic, disulfide and hydrogen bonds.
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What is the quartenary structure
Some proteins (e.g. haemoglobin) are made of more then one polypeptide chain.
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Difference between a globular and fibrous protein?
Globular - compact, soluble. Fibrous - long, tightly coiled chains with cross links.
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What can proteins function as?
Enzymes, antibodies, Transport proteins, Structural
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A test for proteins?
The Biuret test - (1) first add sodium hydroxide to make it alkaline. Then add Copper (II) sulfate. Solution turns lilac if protein is present.
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What are enzymes and what do they do?
Enzymes are biological catalysts and speed up metabolic reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for these reactions.
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Describe the lock-and-key model for enzymes
The enzyme's active site is complementary to the substrate. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme creating a ESC like lock and key
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Induced fit?
Basically lock and key but just mention the fact that the active site changes slightly.
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What does temperature do do enzyme activity?
Increasing the temperature increases the kinetic energy and leads to more successful collisions between enzyme and substrate. However, increasing temperature too much results in bonds breaking, active site changing, no esc and substrate cannot bind.
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What does pH do to enzyme activity
Changes shape of active site or Can cause denaturing due to breaking of bonds etc.
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What does substrate concentration do to enzyme activity.
Increases the rate of reaction until active site saturation has been achieved.
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What does enzyme concentration do to enzyme activity?
Increases rate up to a point for limited substrate conc. Increases then reaches a steady rate for constant substrate conc. Finally forever increases with excess unlimited substrate.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a dipeptide?


Two amino acids joined together.

Card 3


What bond occurs in proteins?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Peptide bonds are formed by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the primary structure?


Preview of the front of card 5
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