Prokaryotic Cells and Viruses

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 17-04-16 20:05
What are viruses?
They're thought of as disease-causing organisms. They can cause disease in animals and plants, they're extremely small. They're only visible with an electron microscope.
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Why are viruses called non-cells?
They have no cytoplasm, nor organelles and no chromosomes.
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What does a virus exist as outside of a living cell?
An inert virion, they aren't classed as living - they don't perform all 7 of the life processes.
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What happens when a virus invades a cell?
They're able to take over the cells metabolism and multiply within the host cell. They can insert their genetic material into the genetic material of the host cell.
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What are viruses made up of?
A core of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat called the capsid. Viruses found in animal cells and baceteria tend to have DNA, some animal viruses and plant viruses carry fou
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What have viruses been used as?
Vectors, carrying genes from one organism to another such as in genetic engineering.
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What are some factors of animal cells?
No Cell Wall. No Chloroplasts. Small, temporary vacuoles called vesicles. Centrioles present. No plasmodesmata.lled ve
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What are some factors of plant cells?
Cell Wall Present. Chloroplasts present. Large, permanent vacuole. No centrioles. Plasmodesmata.
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What are plasmodesmata?
Microscopic channels, they transverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.
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What is a totipotent stem cell?
It can become all cell types.
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What is a pluripotent stem cell?
It can become a few different cell types such as adult somatic stem cells found in bone marrow, can become bone marrow, blood cells, bone cells, cartilage cells.
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What's the hierarchy of organisation?
Cells - building blocks. Tissue - cells that have differentiated int he same way. Organs - combinations of different tissues. Organ systems - combinations of organs working together. Organism- organ systems working together.bingti
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What is epithial tissue?
It forms a continuous layer, covering/lining the internal and external surfaces of the body. No blood vessels, may have nerve endings. They sit on a basement membrane made of collagen and protein. Vary in shape and complexity.
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What is cuboidal epithilium?
Simplest type, cells are cube shape and tissue is one cell thick. Occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney nephron and ducts of the salivary glands.
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What is columnar epithelium?
Elongated cells. Those lining tubes that substances move through, such as the oviduct and trachae have cilia therefore they're called ciliated columnar epithelial cells.
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What is squamous epithelium?
Consists of flattened cells on a basement membrane. They form walls of the alveoli and line the renal (Bowman's) capulse of the nephron.
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What is skeletal muscle?
Attached to bones, generates locomotion in mammals. Bands of long cell, or fibres, which give powerful contractions but the muscles tire easily. Voluntary muscles. Striated muscle.
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What is smooth muscle?
Indiviudal spindle-shaped cells, contract rhythmically, less powerful then skeletal. Occur in the skin, walls of blood vessels, digestive system & respiratory tracts. Involuntary muscles. Unstriated muscle.
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What is cardiac muscle?
Only found in the heart. Structure and properties inbetween skeletal and smooth. Cells have stripes but no long fibres. Contract rhythmically, without stimulation from nerves or hormones, these can modify their contraction. It doesn't tire.
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What is connective tissue?
It connects, supports or separates tissues and organs. It contains elastic and collagen fibres in an extracellular fluid or matrix. Between the fibres are fat-storing cells (adipocytes) and cells of the immune system.
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What's the calculation for magnification?
Image Size/Actual Size
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why are viruses called non-cells?


They have no cytoplasm, nor organelles and no chromosomes.

Card 3


What does a virus exist as outside of a living cell?


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Card 4


What happens when a virus invades a cell?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are viruses made up of?


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